The United Kingdom

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X.—THE UNITED KINGDOM.

1. Population.

So far we have dealt with the results of the Census in England and Wales, that is to say, in that portion of the United Kingdom in which alone the enumeration was carried out and the results tabulated under our immediate superintendence. Having now concluded our report on these results, our proper task is ended. It will probably, however, be convenient that we should go somewhat beyond our strict province, and give a summary view of the main numerical results of the Census, as carried out in the United Kingdom as a whole.

Natural and actual increase

At the Census of 1881 the population of the United Kingdom consisted of 34,884,848 persons. In the course of the ensuing intercensal period, 11,293,515 more were added by birth, while 0,8B8,638 were removed by death. This addition and this loss would have given, had there been no emigration and no immigration, a population of 39,289,725 persons at the Census of 1891. The emigrants, however, to places outside Europe exceeded the immigrants from such places, according to the information collected by the emigration officers, by 1,747,177. Deducting this excess from the population, as determined simply from the natural increase and as given above, there remains a total of 37,542,548 persons, who would have constituted the population of the United Kingdom in 1891, had there been no movement to and from places in Europe. As a matter of fact, however, the actually enumerated population amounted to 37,732,922, showing an excess over the calculated number, as just given, of 190,874 persons. Homo portion of this difference of 190,374 may be attributable to the unavoidable defects in the returns of emigrants and immigrants; but the main part is, doubtlessly, duo to European immigration, or, rather to the excess of immigration over emigration from and to European countries.

The above statement may be thus tabularly represented:—

Enumerated population, April 1881   34,884,848
Add intercensal births 11,293,515  
Less intercensal deaths 6,888,638  
    4,404,877
    39,289,725
Deduct intercensal emigrants to non-European Countries 2,593,226  
Less intercensal immigrants from ditto 846,049  
    1,747,177
    37,542,548
Enumerated population, 1891   37,732,922
Difference due to excess of immigration from Europe   190,374

These figures show, beyond all doubt, that the returns of emigration and immigration, and of births and deaths, in the United Kingdom, as also the Census enumeration, must possess a very high degree of accuracy.

The Population, then, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland amounted, in April 1891, to 37,732,922 persons, being 2,848,074, or 8.2 per cent., above the number recorded at the Census of 1881. This rate of growth was lower than that of either of the two next preceding decennia, in which it had been successively 8.8 and 10.8 per cent. Each of the three great sub-divisions of the Kingdom contributed to bring about this slackening in the growth of the population. For both in England and Wales and in Scotland the ratio of increase in 1881-91 was smaller than it had been either in 1861-71 or in 1871-81, while in Ireland the decrease was very much larger than in either of those two decennia, having, in the earlier of the two, been 6.7 per cent. and in the second 44 per cent., whereas in 1881-91 it was no less than 9.1 per cent. (Appendix A., Table 35).

Proportions of English and Welsh, Scotch and Irish

In 1821, in which year the first complete census of the United Kingdom was taken, 57.4 per cent. of the aggregate population were inhabitants of England and Wales, 10 per cent. were inhabitants of Scotland, and 32.6 per cent. were living in Ireland. But at each of the seven successive censuses since that date, the percentage residing in England and Wales has increased, while the percentage residing in Ireland has as continuously declined, the Scotch proportion remaining practically unchanged, such alteration as has occurred being in. the direction of increase, the total result of these successive changes was, that in 1891 the English and Welsh proportion had risen to 76.8 per cent., and the Scotch proportion to 10.7 per cent., while the Irish share had fallen to 12.5 per cent. (Appendix A., Table 36); or, in round numbers, three-quarters of the population were living in England and Wales, one-ninth in Scotland, and one-eighth in Ireland.

2. Sexes, Ages, and Condition as to Marriage.

Proportion between the sexes

Of the 37,732,922 inhabitants of the United Kingdom, 18,314,571 were of the male, and 19,418,351 of the female, sex; the proportion being, therefore, 1,060 females to 1,000 males. There were, however, great differences in this respect between the three great sub-divisions of the Kingdom; the proportion of females to 1,000 males being 1,064 in England and Wales, 1,072 in Scotland, and only 1,029 in Ireland.

Ages of the population

The ages of the aggregate population, after distribution of those whose ages were not stated, were as follows:—

THE UNITED KINGDOM.
Males. Females. Persons.
All Ages 18,314,571 19,418,351 37,732,922
       
0— 2,261,332 2,265,101 4,526,433
5— 4,314,149 4,293,527 8,607,676
15— 3,597,938 3,776,135 7,374,073
25— 2,649,510 2,909,536 5,559,046
35— 2,049,221 2,210,467 4,259,688
45— 1,568,429 1,732,440 3,300,869
55— 1,038,405 1,190,368 2,228,773
65— 595,942 725,120 1,321,062
75— 210,951 272,895 483,846
85— 27,315 40,409 67,724
95 and upwards 1,379 2,353 3,732

Civil condition

The condition as regards marriage of the population of the United Kingdom was as follows:—

Civil Condition. Males. Females. Proportions per 1,000.
Males. Females.
Single 11,619,047 11,751,611 634 605
Married 6,055,017 6,146,253 331 317
Widowed 640,507 1,520,487 35 78
Total 18,314,571 19,418,351 1,000 1,000

The proportions differed very widely in the different divisions of the Kingdom; the proportions of married men and women being, as the following table shows, much higher in England and Wales than in Scotland, and in Scotland than in Ireland.

PROPORTIONS PER 1,000

Civil Condition. England and Wales. Scotland. Ireland.
Males. Females. Males. Females. Males. Females.
Single 620 596 663 631 696 641
Married 345 329 304 290 265 262
Widowed 35 75 33 79 39 97

3. Occupations.

It has been explained in an earlier part of this Report, that, owing to the instructions given to us that we should distinguish in the occupation table between masters, men, and those who were working on their own account, it became necessary to diminish the number of separate occupational headings, as otherwise the working sheets would have been too large for the abstracting clerks to manipulate; and the opportunity of this necessary alteration was taken to introduce certain other small changes into the classification. In Scotland the same alterations were adopted as in this country. But in Ireland, where the separation of masters from men was not enjoined upon the Census authority, the classification of 1881 was adhered to, practically without alteration. A difficulty therefore arises in attempting to combine the three occupational tables into an aggregate for the United Kingdom. By taking, however, orders only or large groups, and making careful transference, when necessary, from one group to another, this difficulty can be surmounted, and that plan has consequently been adopted in preparing the following table. There is also another difficulty in the way, but one which luckily is rather apparent than real. The English table only gives the occupations of those who are 10 or more years of age, the first age-period in the table being 10-15 years of age; the Scotch Census gives the occupations of those over five years of age, the first age-period used being 5-15 years; while the Irish table includes portions of all ages from birth onwards, the first period being 0-15 years of age. At first sight this would seem to preclude all possible amalgamation of the three tables, so far as the first age-period is concerned; but when it is borne in mind that, owing to legal restrictions and to the obligation of compulsory school attendance, children under 10 can scarcely be employed in any manufacture or industry, it will be seen that the discrepancy between the three tables is rather in form than in substance. Possibly here and there a young child who would be excluded in the English table may have a place in the Scotch or Irish table; but the number of such cases must be at most excessively small, and, for all practical purposes, may be disregarded.

OCCUPATIONS of the INHABITANTS of the UNITED KINGDOM and its several DIVISIONS, and the PROPORTIONS of PERSONS engaged in such OCCUPATIONS to the TOTAL POPULATION.

Classes, Orders and Sub-Orders. Numbers. Rates per million.
Eng-
land &
Wales
Scot-
land
Ire-
land
United King-
dom
Eng-
land &
Wales
Scot-
land
Ire-
land
United King-
dom

PROFESSIONAL CLASS:
926,132 111,319 207,831 1,245,282 31,933 27,652 44,175 33,003
1. Civil Service and Local Government 144,300 18,485 29,611 192,396 4,975 4,592 6,294 5,099
2. Defence of the Country 126,473 7,588 31,293 165,354 4,361 1,885 6,652 4,382
3. Professional (with immediate Subordinates):—                
  a Clerical:—                
  1 Clergymen, Priests, Ministers 30,800 4,957 6,272 48,029 1,269 1,231 1,333 1,273
  2 Nun, Scripture Reader; Church, Cemetery-
Officials, &c.
21,842 2,389 8,720 32,951 753 593 1,853 873
  b Legal:—                
  1 Barristers, Solicitors 19,978 3,111 2,080 25,160 689 773 442 667
  2 Law Clerks, &c. 27,540 4,694 2,249 34,483 950 1,166 478 914
  c Medical:—                
  1 Physicians, Surgeons, General Practit-
ioners
19,037 2,595 2,293 28,925 656 645 487 634
  2 Sick Nurses, Midwives 53,658 3,821 1,107 58,586 1,850 949 235 1,553
  3 Others 12,540 1,293 825 14,658 432 321 175 388
  d Educational:—                
  1 Teachers 200,595 20,850 21,190 242,635 6,917 5,179 4,504 6,431
  2 Students over 15 147,489 29,215 95,766 272,470 5,085 7,257 20,356 7,221
  e Others 115,880 12,321 6,425 134,626 3,996 3,061 1,366 3,568

DOMESTIC CLASS
               
4. Domestic Offices or Service 1,900,328 203,153 238,215 2,341,606 65,523 50,465 50,633 62,060

COMMERCIAL CLASS
1,399,735 180,952 95,446 1,676,133 48,262 44,950 20,287 44,421
5. Commercial Occupations 416,365 58,589 29,189 504,148 14,356 14,554 6,204 13,361
6. Conveyance of Men, Goods, and Messages:—                
  a On Railways 186,774 26,284 9,610 222,668 6,440 6,529 2,043 5,901
  b On Roads 366,605 42,194 27,282 436,081 12,640 10,481 5,798 11,557
  c On Canals, Rivers, Seas 208,443 27,539 16,957 252,957 7,187 6,841 3,608 6,704
  d Storage, Porterage, Messages 221,548 26,346 12,390 200,284 7,639 6,545 2,634 6,898

AGRICULTURAL AND FISHING CLASS:
1,333,945 249,124 940,621 2,526,690 46,098 61,884 199,930 66,962
7. Agriculture:—                
  a Farmers 223,610 54,332 417,003 694,945 7,710 13,497 88,635 18,417
  b Farmers' Sons, Nephews, &c., over 15 67,287 17,081 212,731 297,099 2,320 4,243 45,216 7,874
  c Farm Bailiffs 18,205 3,248 2,124 23,577 628 807 451 625
  d Agricultural Labourers, Farm Servants, Teamsters.* 750,134 107,412 273,597 1,140,143 26,175 26,682 58,154 30,215
  e Shepherds 21,573 10,113 6,489 38,175 744 2,512 1,379 1,012
  f Gardeners, Nurserymen, Seedsmen 179,336 16,385 8,756 204,477 6,183 4,070 1,861 5,419
  g Engaged about Animals 26,574 6,925 6,623 40,122 916 1,720 1,408 1,063
  h Others 16,001 4,489 2,020 22,510 552 1,115 429 597
8. Fishing 25,225 29,139 11,278 65,642 870 7,238 2,397 1,740

INDUSTRIAL CLASS:
7,336,344 1,032,404 657,154 9,025,902 252,955 256,457 139,679 239,205
9. Books, Newspapers, Prints, Maps 145,307 20,317 7,722 173,346 5,010 5,047 1,639 4,594
10. Machine, Tools, and Implements 342,231 51,426 8,259 401,916 11,800 12,775 1,755 10,652
11. Houses, Furniture, &c.:—                
  a Building Trades 680,886 87,068 47,349 815,303 23,477 21,628 10,064 21,607
  b Furniture, Fittings, Decorations 139,696 14,290 4,413 158,399 4,817 3,550 938 4,198
12. Carriages and Harness 108,780 7,021 5,780 121,581 3,751 1,744 1,220 3,222
13. Ships and Boats 70,517 23,518 4,284 98,319 2,431 5,842 911 2,606
14. Chemicals and Compounds 56,047 7,826 1,787 65,560 1,932 1,944 380 1,740
15. Tobacco and Pipes 31,141 3,779 1,506 36,426 1,074 939 320 965
16. Food and Lodging:—                
  a Innkeepers, Publicans, and others engaged in making or selling Spirituous Drinks. 148,943 13,664 14,929 177,536 5,136 3,394 3,173 4,705
  b Dealers in Food 597,863 90,982 53,111 741,961 20,614 22,601 11,289 19,663
  c Lodging, Boarding-
House Keepers
51,178 4,015 2,462 57,655 1,765 997 523 1,528
17. Textile Fabrics:—                
  a Wool, Worsted 254,585 40,034 6,630 301,249 8,778 9,945 1,409 7,984
  b Silk 51,427 4,132 329 55,888 1,773 1,026 70 1,481
  c Cotton 629,184 36,728 4,279 670,191 21,694 9,124 910 17,761
  d Flax, Linen 8,166 26,223 88,603 122,992 282 6,514 18,833 3,260
  e Hemp, Jute, and other Fibrous Materials 22,416 36,297 1,826 60,539 773 9,016 388 1,604
  f Mixed or Unspecified Materials 162,811 63,136 28,217 254,164 5,614 15,083 5,998 6,736
18. Dress 1,099,833 123,064 153,429 1,376,326 37,921 30,571 32,612 36,476
19. Skins, Hair, Grease, Bone and othe Animal Substances 76,566 6,695 2,728 85,989 2,640 1,663 580 279
20. Wood, Paper, Oil, Gum, Rush and other vegetable Substances 196,889 36,885 11,659 245,433 6,789 9,163 2,478 6,504
21. Mineral Substances:—                
  a Mining 561,637 87,406 1,382 650,425 19,365 21,712 294 17,238
  b Stone, Slate, Clay, and Roads 209,972 29,438 10,120 249,530 7,240 7,313 2,151 6,613
  c Iron, Steel 380,193 68,040 21,541 469,774 13,109 16,902 4,579 12,450
  d Copper, Tin, Zinc, Lead, and other Metals 179,394 13,870 3,669 192,933 6,048 3,445 780 5,113
  e Earthernware and Glass-Makers and Dealers 86,022 10,037 3,699 99,758 2,966 2,493 786 2,644
  f Others 86,022 10,037 3,699 99,758 2,966 2,493 786 2,644
22. General or Unspecified Commodities:—                
  a General Shopkeepers, Dealers, Pawnbrokers 65,077 13,784 28,974 107,835 2,244 3,424 6,158 2,858
  b Coster-
mongers, Hawkers &c., Street Sellers
58,030 6,440 2,332 67,717 2,032 1,601 496 1,795
  c Contractors, Manufacturers, Mangers (undefined) 11,199 1,653 944 13,796 386 411 201 364
  d Mechanics, Labourers, General or Undefined 805,105 95,365 133,082 1,033,552 27,759 23,689 28,287 27,391
23. Refuse Matters 18,328 1,946 1,100 21,374 632 483 234 566

CHILDREN AND ADULTS WITH NO SPECIFIED OCCUPATION
16,103,041 2,248,695 2,565,485 20,917,219 555,229 558,592 545,296 554,349

TOTAL POPULATION
20,002,525 4,025,647 4,704,750 37,732,922 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000
* Many agricultural labourers are returned as General Labourers and such are, of course, not here included. This appears to have been especially the case in Ireland. See note to Irish Census Report, Part II., p. 123.

We do not propose to examine the figures in the foregoing table in great, detail. Confining ourselves, however, to the six great classes, we may give, the following summary view of the comparative condition as regards occupations of the three main sub-divisions of the United Kingdom.

Class. Proportions per 1,000 of all Ages
England
and
Wales.
Scotland. Ireland. United
Kingdom.
Professional 32 28 44 33
Domestic 66 50 51 62
Commercial 48 45 20 44
Agricultural and Fishing 46 62 200 67
Industrial 253 256 140 239
Unoccupied 555 559 545 555
Total 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

Professional class

It is curious to note that the proportion borne by the professional class to the total population is much higher in Ireland than in England and Wales, or than in Scotland. This is partly due to the large number of soldiers quartered in Ireland, but mainly to the astoundingly large number of persons over 15 years of age returned as "students" in that division of the Kingdom. These amounted to no less than 95,766, or from three to four times as many as in Scotland, and two-thirds as many as in England and Wales, notwithstanding that the population of this latter is more than six times that of Ireland, What may be the explanation of this enormous excess of students over 15 in Ireland, we are quite unable to say. The members of what are ordinarily termed the learned professions, with the exception of the clergy, were not in excess in that country, as is shown in the following table, which gives the average number of persons to one clergyman or priest, one lawyer, one doctor, and one teacher.

Profession. Persons to One Professional.
England
and Wales.
Scotland. Ireland. United
Kingdom.
Clergyman, Priest, Minister 788 812 750 786
Lawyer 1,452 1,294 2,262 1,499
Medical Man 1,523 1,551 2,052 1,577
Teacher 145 193 222 156

Domestic class

In the Domestic Class, which consists almost entirely of servants and washerwomen, the English proportion, as might be anticipated, far exceeded those of Scotland and of Ireland, which latter two were in this respect practically on an equality.

Commercial class

The Commercial Class was also more fully represented in England and Wales than in Scotland, though not to a very great degree; but in both the proportion vastly exceeded that in Ireland. The Irish proportion was low in all the sub-divisions of this class, namely, those engaged in what are ordinarily known as commercial businesses, and those engaged in transport, whether by rail, road, or water.

Agricultural and fishing class

Still greater is the contrast between the several countries in the Agricultural and Fishing Class. In England and Wales only 46 per 1,000 of the population were grouped in this class: in Scotland the proportion was 62, and in Ireland no less than 200. In Ireland, with a population only one-sixth of that of England, there were almost twice as many persons returned as farmers as in the larger country; while the farmers' sons or nephews, or near male relatives, over 15 years of age, living with the farmer, and without specified occupation, and who were presumably assisting in farm work, were more than four times as numerous. The large excess in Ireland of these farmers' relatives, who practically take the place of farm servants, and the imperfect way in which the agricultural labourers are returned throughout the kingdom, but especially in Ireland, prevents due comparison of the figures under this last heading. Even if we take the figures as they stand in the table, however, without correction, the proportion of agricultural labourers in Ireland vastly exceeded the proportions in England and Wales, and in Scotland. Scotland, on the other hand, exceeded both England and Ireland in its proportion of shepherds; while the only agricultural pursuit in which the English and Welsh proportion largely exceeded the Scotch and Irish was that of gardeners, including nurserymen and seedsmen.There were more than ten times as many persons thus engaged in England as in Scotland, and more than twenty times as many as in Ireland.

The returns of fishermen in England and Wales, as has been pointed out on an earlier page (p. 45), considerably understate the actual number so employed. When, however, the fullest allowance has been made for this, the proportion of fishermen to population in England and Wales still remains far lower than in Ireland, while in Ireland it is only one third as high as in Scotland.

Industrial class

The proportion of persons in the Industrial Class to the total population was 253 to 1,000 in England and Wales and 256 in Scotland, figures practically identical, but only 140 in Ireland; the only industry in which the Irish proportion was higher than in the other divisions being the flax and linen manufacture, which is almost extinct in England, is carried on to a larger extent in Scotland, but in Ireland alone assumes notable proportions.

There are, however, many occupational groups in the Industrial Class in which the proportion of the population engaged was higher in Scotland than in England and Wales. Such, for example, are the builders and equippers of ships, the dealers in food, and, among the textile industries, the woollen, the linen, and the jute manufactures. The total proportion was also, as the table shows, much higher than the English for those who work or deal in mixed and unspecified materials; but this was simply due to the fact that a much larger proportion of weavers and factory hands returned themselves indefinitely, that is without statement of the material in which they worked, in Scotland than in this country. The paper manufacture is also more extensively carried on, in proportion to the population, in Scotland than in England; and this has caused the Scotch proportion to be the higher in the 20th sub-order The Scotch proportion was, also the higher under Mining, and in the large group of industries thrown together under Iron and Steel Manufactures.

4. Birth-places.

Of the total enumerated population of the United Kingdom 37,300,996, or 98.86 per cent., were born within its limits, namely 74.80 per cent. in England and Wales, 10.60 per cent. in Scotland, and 13.87 per cent. in Ireland.

Other parts of the British Empire contributed 164,961, or 0.44 per cent to the whole; 4,968 or 0.01 per cent., were born at sea while the remaining 261,997, or 0.69 per cent., were natives of foreign States. Of these 261,997 persons a considerable number, though born abroad, were British subjects; how many it is, however, impossible to say, for in the Irish census no separate account appears to have been taken of foreign born British subjects, and in England and Wales and in Scotland the returns were doubtlessly in this respect imperfect. There were, however, in England and Wales 34,895, and in Scotland 7,577 persons, who, though of foreign birth, were stated to be British subjects.

The proportion of persons born abroad, whether in other parts of the British Empire or in the dominions of foreign States, was, as might be anticipated, far higher in England and Wales than in Scotland, and in Scotland again than in Ireland, as may be seen in the following table:—

Birthplace. Enumerated in.
England and
Wales.
Scotland. Ireland. United Kingdom.
England and Wales 27,882,629 111,045 74,523 28,068,197
Scotland 282,271 3,688,700 27,323 3,998,294
Ireland 458,315 194,807 4,581,383 5,234,505
         
United Kingdom 28,623,215 3,994,552 4,683,229 37,300,996
Colonies and Dependencies 141,997 14,534 8,430 164,961
Foreign Countries 233,008 16,089 12,900 261,997
At Sea 4,305 472 191 4,968
         
Total 29,002,525 4,025,647 4,704,750 37,732,922

5. Physical Infirmities.

The blind

The total number of persons returned as blind in the United Kingdom was 31,605, of whom 16,270 were of the male and 15,335 of the female sex. These figures give 838 blind persons per million males and 790 per million females.

The proportions, however, varied much in the different divisions of the kingdom. In Scotland there were only 695 blind persons per million population; in England and Wales there were 809, and in Ireland as many as 1,185. Moreover, while the proportion of blind males considerably exceeded the proportion of blind females both in England and Wales and in Scotland, in Ireland the opposite was the case, and the female proportion was somewhat the higher, there being 1,161 blind females but only 1,109 blind males per million of the corresponding sex.

— ALL AGES. 0— 15— 25— 35— 45— 55— 65— 75— 85 and
upwards. England and Wales { Males 12,281 1,141 1,184 1,165 1,501 1,752 1,905 1,932 1,410 291 Females 11,186 983 927 855 989 1,155 1,646 2,159 1,929 543 Scotland { Males 1,417 111 139 160 194 198 222 199 154 40 Females 1,380 108 93 103 111 146 189 261 266 103 Ireland { Males 2,572 79 123 164 255 405 488 474 430 154 Females 2,769 61 117 164 261 451 508 542 468 197                         United Kingdom { Males 16,270 1,331 1,446 1,489 1,950 2,355 2,615 2,605 1,994 485 Females 15,335 1,152 1,137 1,122 1,361 1,752 2,343 2,962 2,663 843 Persons 31,605 2,483 2,583 2,611 3,311 4,107 4,958 5,567 4,657 1,328

The deaf and dumb

The total number of persons returned as deaf-mutes in the United Kingdom was 19,682 or 522 per million persons living. Of the total, 10,705 or 585 per million living, were of the male, and 8,977, or 462 per million living of the female sex. In England and Wales the proportion of deaf-mutes was 489 per million living; in Scotland it was 528, and in Ireland 715. In each division of the kingdom the male proportion largely exceeded the female proportion; the male proportions per million S being 548 615, and 778, respectively in England and Wales, in Scotland, and in Ireland; while the female proportions per million living, taking the divisions in the same order, were respectively 434,446, and 655.

DEAF and DUMB; SEXES and AGES.

ALL AGES. 0— 15— 25— 35— 45— 55— 65— 75— 85 and
upwards.
England and Wales { Males 7,707 2,487 1,605 1,177 995 697 439 236 63 8
Females 6,485 1,860 1,419 1,024 857 607 397 226 85 10
Scotland { Males 1,195 359 262 178 161 92 87 43 12 1
Females 930 246 196 153 114 87 69 41 22 2
Ireland { Males 1,803 398 354 304 246 206 179 79 34 3
Females 1,562 302 312 256 275 167 152 69 22 7
                       
United Kingdom { Males 10,705 3,244 2,221 1,659 1,402 995 705 358 109 12
Females 8,977 2,408 1,927 1,433 1,246 861 618 336 129 19
Persons 19,682 5,652 4,148 3,092 2,648 1,856 1,323 694 238 31

The insane

The total number of persons returned as suffering from some or other form of mental derangement was 134,033, or 3,552 per million persons living. The proportion was lowest in England and Wales, 3,358 per million; next lowest in Scotland, 3,841 per million; and highest in Ireland, 4,504 per million; so that this last division of the kingdom suffered considerably more than either of the other two divisions from each form of physical infirmity dealt with in the Census. Again, while the female insane rate exceeded the male rate very considerably in England and Wales, and slightly in Scotland, the opposite was the case in Ireland, where there were 4,728 insane males and only 4,285 insane females per million living of corresponding sex.

INSANE; SEXES and AGES.

ALL AGES. 0— 15— 25— 35— 45— 55— 65— 75— 85 and
upwards.
England and Wales { Males 45,392 2,975 6,225 8,482 9,214 8,187 5,799 3,412 988 110
Females 51,991 2,201 4,981 8,609 10,344 10,510 8,035 5,152 1,894 265
Scotland { Males 7,424 453 953 1,512 1,642 1,347 931 436 122 28
Females 8,033 336 694 1,237 1,645 1,662 1,288 796 327 53
Ireland { Males 10,964 469 1,399 2,480 2,427 2,150 1,265 573 179 22
Females 10,224 287 1,100 1,914 2,208 2,232 1,430 772 241 40
                       
United Kingdom { Males 63,780 3,897 8,577 12,474 13,283 11,684 7,995 4,421 1,289 160
Females 70,253 2,824 6,775 11,760 14,197 14,404 10,753 6,720 2,462 358
Persons 134,033 6,721 15,352 24,234 27,480 26,088 18,748 11,141 3,751 518

6. Institutions.

Poor-law institutions

The total number of persons in receipt of indoor relief in the United Kingdom was 235,594, or 6,244 per million population. The proportion, however, was only 2,574 per million in Scotland; while in England and Wales it was 6,300, and in Ireland no less than 9,038.

Hospitals

The total number of patients in hospitals was 36,137, or 958 per million population. The proportion per million was highest in Scotland, where it reached 1,246; then in England and Wales, where it was 951; and smallest in Ireland, where it was only 753.

Lunatic asylums

The total number of persons afflicted with some or other form of mental derangement in the United Kingdom was, as shown in the last section, 134,033; and of these 84,733, or 63 per cent., were inmates of asylums. In England and Wales 65 per cent. of the lunatics wore inmates of asylums, in Scotland 59 per cent. and in Ireland only 56 per cent.

Prisons

There were at the date of the Census 22,851 prisoners in the United Kingdom and 32,866 inmates of certified reformatories or industrial schools, making together a total of 55,717 persons in some or other place of detention. The proportion of such persons to the total population was highest in Ireland, 2,539 per million living; next highest in Scotland, 2,008 per million: and lowest in England and Wales, where it was only 1,231 per million. The high proportion in Ireland was entirely due, and in Scotland was mainly due, to the excessive number of young persons in reformatories or industrial schools; the proportion of prisoners, or, speaking generally, of adult criminals, being lower in Ireland than in either of the other divisions of the kingdom; and though higher in Scotland than England and Wales, not nearly so much higher as was the proportion of the inmates of the reformatories and industrial schools.

Number of Special Inmates. Proportion per million of Total Population.
England
and Wales.
Scotland. Ireland. United
Kingdom.
England
and Wales.
Scotland. Ireland. United
Kingdom.
Workhouses (including Infirmaries and Schools). 182,710 10,364 12,520 235,594 6,300 2,574 9,038 6,244
Hospitals 27,379 3,044 3,544 36,137 951 1,246 753 958
Lunatic Asylums* 63,693 9,198 11,842 84,733 2,196 2,285 2,517 2,246
Prisons 17,303 2,800? 2,748 22,851 597 696 584 606
Certified Reformatories and Industrial Schools 18,389 3,232 2,197 32,866 634 1,312 1,955 871
* The inmates of the wards for the insane in workhouses are included with other inmates of those institutions.
? This figure includes 178 inmates of police stations and cells.

7. Natives of the United Kingdom abroad at the date of the Census.

Of the 37,732,922 persons enumerated in the United Kingdom, 37,305,964, as already stated, were born within its limits or at sea, while 426,958 were born abroad, namely 164,961 in British Colonies or Dependencies, and 261,997 in the dominions of foreign States.

Against these 426,958 persons born out of the country, but sojourning in the United Kingdom at the time of the census, must be put natives of the United Kingdom who at that date were living abroad. The returns of these were necessarily somewhat imperfect. From those countries in which complete censuses were taken sufficiently accurate returns were received by us. But the consular or other returns from countries in which no such systematic enumerations were made could of course be no more than more or less approximate estimates. As, however, the great bulk of our fellow country men abroad were in countries where regular Censuses are taken, the possible errors from mistaken estimate or total absence of information in other parts of the world may be neglected as practically insignificant when merged in the grand total. There were then, according to the returns received by us, 5,018,545, or in round numbers five million, natives of the United Kingdom living out of the country at the date of the enumeration. These with the 37,305,964 natives who were enumerated in the country itself make up a total of 42,324,509 persons born in the United Kingdom and alive in April 1891.

In colonies, dependencies, and protectorates

Of the 5,018,545 natives of the United Kingdom living abroad, 1,741,455 were in British Colonies, Dependencies, or Protectorates, namely, over a million in Australasia and nearly half a million in Canada, thus leaving only some quarter of a million in all the other parts of the British Empire. The precise figures for each country are given in Table 50, Appendix A. The most striking entry in that table relates to British India. In this huge territory there were but 90,039 natives of the United Kingdom, including all ages, all occupations, whether civil or military, and both sexes, or one British native on an average to a population of 2,459 persons.

In the dominions of foreign states

The natives of the United Kingdom living in the dominions of foreign States were much more numerous than those living in foreign parts of the British Empire. They numbered altogether 3,277,010, or in round numbers three millions and a quarter, and of this total more than three millions were living in the United States of America, leaving less than a quarter of a million in all other foreign dominions, If these figures be compared with those given in the table of birth-places of the enumerated population of the United Kingdom (p. 89), it will be seen that the persons of foreign birth to whom this country gives residence are quite insignificant numerically to those of our countrymen who are living abroad. Only 261,997 natives of foreign countries, other than parts of the British Empire, were enumerated in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, while those foreign countries extended their hospitality to 3,277,090 of our own countrymen.

Of these, as stated, more than three millions, or precisely 3,122,911, were enumerated in the United States, being 350,742, or 13 per cent., more than were similarly enumerated in 1881.

Putting America and Polynesia aside and limiting ourselves to Europe, Asia, and Africa the following is a list of the foreign States in which our countrymen were in largest numbers in 1891, the figures for 1881 being also given for comparison. All countries have been included in which the number of our resident countrymen exceeded 350.

Foreign State. Enumerated Natives of
United Kingdom.
Foreign State. Enumerated Natives of
United Kingdom.
1881. 1891. 1881. 1891.
France 36,447 45,531 Ottoman Dominions 3,117 3,073
German Empire 11,139 15,748 Austria and Hungary 2,169 2,145
Italy 7,230 8,056 Portugal 1,798 1,560
Egypt 2,481 5,600 Japan 1,105 1,415
Belgium 3,789 4,579 Morrocco 661 1,079
Russia 5,007 4,239 Greece 566 556
China 2,352 3,758 Mozambique 48 435
Switzerland 2,812 3,707 Maderia 438 392
Spain 4,771 3,286      

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