Migration of the People at Home (Birth-Places)

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Tables 123-133

The Schedule supplied the means of distinguishing, not only the number of the inhabitants, but also the numbers born in each county of England, in Scotland, in Ireland, and in Foreign Parts.

Of the population at home, 946,172 persons were born out of England and Wales, 3,509 were born at sea, 17,742 were British subjects born abroad, 51,572 were born in the East Indies or the British Colonies, 18,423 were born in the Islands of the British Seas, 169,202 were born in Scotland, and 601,634 were natives of Ireland. These were all subjects of the Queen.

Foreigners in England

In the midst of 19,982,623 British subjects lived 84,090 subjects of Foreign States. They are of all ages; but there is a great excess of men between the ages of 20 and 40. 9,502 of the subjects of Foreign States belonged to America, 518 to Africa, 358 to Asia, and 73,434 to Europe; 40,909 of them are in London, and the rest are distributed all over England.

The diplomatic corps stands among the subjects of Foreign States, first in importance, but its numbers are not considerable. The merchant seamen amount to 15,561, chiefly from Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Germany, the descendants of the same races as invaded England.

Summary Table XXX., Vol. II

We give a Table of the ages and occupations of the subjects of European States. Of the subjects of France, 12,989 are reckoned, including teachers of languages, governesses, cooks, servants, merchants, clerks, seamen (1,532), tailors, bootmakers, dressmakers, and smaller numbers in a great variety of occupations.

Italy sends us musicians, artists, priests, figure and image makers, looking-glass makers, and merchants. 667 Italian seamen were in our ports. Germany, with Austria and Prussia, besides seamen (4624), supplies us with a large number of musicians, teachers of the German language, servants, merchants, factors, and commercial clerks, watch and clock makers (965), engine and machine makers, tailors, shoemakers; with many bakers, and a large colony of sugar refiners (1345).

Table 126

The cities, and especially the metropolis, are the principal seats of foreign residents. London in 1851 contained 30,057 persons born in Foreign Parts; and in 1861 it contained 48,390 foreigners by birth.


Liverpool at the two censuses contained 4,167 and 4,412 foreigners; Manchester and Salford 2,035 and 3,086 persons born in Foreign Parts. Birmingham, Hull, and Brighton were the only other towns that contained more than 1,000 foreigners.

Table 123

Of 100 foreigners residing in England, 36 were born in Germany, Austria, and Prussia, 16 in France, 9 in the United States of America, and 39 in all the other States of the world.

18,423 persons in England were born in the Islands of the British Seas.

601,634 persons in England were born in Ireland, of whom nearly five in six, or 497,116, comprising 244,840 men and 252,276 women, were twenty years of age and upwards. The 104,518 under twenty years of age comprised rather more boys than girls, and many of them were the children of the adults. The distribution of the Irish immigrants over England is shown in the Tables; thus, 245,933 of them are in Lancashire and Cheshire, 124,646 in the Metropolitan Counties,—Middlesex, Surrey, and Kent, 50,664 in Yorkshire, and 42,753 in Durham and Northumberland. Wherever employment is-active the Irish flock, and they abound in the large towns,—London, Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Bradford, and Sheffield,—generally occupying particular streets and quarters.

169,202 persons in England were born in Scotland, of whom 42,656 were in Lancashire and Cheshire, and 42,226 were in the Metropolitan Counties. Half of the Scottish population in England were in these five counties,—18,461 resided in Northumberland, 9,025 in Cumberland over the border, 13,621 in Durham, 10,376 in Yorkshire, and 4,419 in Hampshire. A certain number of Scotchmen are scattered over all the other counties.

There is not only a constant movement of parts of the population to and from other countries and England, but there is a constant migration from one part of England to another.

Tables 128 and 129

The migration of the English about their own country is traced in the series of Tables displaying the birth-places of the inhabitants of each county. It may be illustrated by the instances of London and of the North-western Counties, Lancashire and Cheshire.

London is the metropolis of the empire, and thither the representatives of other nations, of the colonies, and of Scotland and Ireland, resort; but it is chiefly the 'field in which the populations of the several counties of England find scope for their talents and their industry.

The majority of its inhabitants are, it is true, indigenous, for 1,741,177 were born within its limits; but of the 1,062,812 who were born elsewhere 852,994 were born in the extra-metropolitan counties and parts of counties of England and Wales.

62 in 100 of the inhabitants were born in London, 19 in the counties of the three divisions around London, 7 in the South-western and the West Midland Counties, 4 in the North Midland and all the Northern Counties. In 100 inhabitants little more than 1 were natives of Scotland, nearly 4 (3.8) were natives of Ireland, 5 were natives of British Colonies, 17 /10 were natives of Foreign parts.

It is evident that these proportions do not show the tendency of the various populations to send emigrants to London; for to determine this relative tendency the numbers of the population from which the emigrants come must be taken into account.

Thus the Islands in the British Seas sent 3,429 of their natives to London, and Ireland sent 106,877; but as the population of the islands is 145,674, and the population of Ireland is 5,850,309, it follows that the islands send proportionally more natives to London than Ireland contributes. To 1,000 people in the islands there are 24 natives of those islands in London; while to a population of 1,000 in Ireland there are 18 Irishmen in London.

< p align="center"> TABLE IX.—BIRTH PLACES of the INHABITANTS of ENGLAND and WALES.
  1851 1861 Difference or increase in 1861 Estimated Immigrants in the 10 Years 1851-1861
TOTAL INHABITANTS 17,927,609 20,066,224 2,138,615
England and Wales 17,165,656 19,120,052 1,954,396
Scotland 130,087 169,202 39,115 64,680
Ireland 519,959 601,634 81,675 177,623
Islands in the British Sea 13,753 18,423 4,670 7,417
British Colonies and East Indies 33,688 51,572 17,884 25,152
Foreign Parts 61,708 101,832 40,124 54,051
Born at Sea 2,758 3,509 751 1,287
Number of Persons born out of, but resident in, England and Wales 761,953 946,172 184,219 330,210

The Table 128 will correct some popular errors. Thus it will be noticed that the tendency of the Scotch to go to London is less than the tendency of the people of any other parts of great Britain, except Lancashire and Cheshire.

Table 128

Taking 1,000 as the population basis, there are to 1,000 people in Scotland nearly 12 Scotchmen in London, to 1,000 people in Yorkshire 13 Yorkshiremen in London, to 1,000 people in Wales and Monmouthshire 15 of Welsh birth in London, to 1,000 people in the Northern counties 16 Northern men by birth in London.

Table 129

The counties of Lancashire and Cheshire are themselves centres of attraction, to Table 129. which the population of other counties flows; but to 1,000 of their population there were 8 natives of those counties in London.

From the counties between the Wash and the Humber there is a small but constant stream of emigrants to London; for Lincoln, Leicester, Derby, and Nottingham have to 1,000 inhabitants 26 of their natives in London, while the counties around the Severn have the somewhat larger proportion of 31 natives in London to 1,000 inhabitants. The stream to London from the South grows larger, and the counties of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Dorset, and Wilts send 128,442 of their natives to be enumerated in London,—70 natives to every 1,000 of the inhabitants of these South-western counties. The influx of the inhabitants of counties immediately about London rises to still higher proportions, and to 1,000 inhabitants, the South Midland counties had 114 natives, the South-eastern counties 123 natives, the Eastern counties 133 natives resident in London. Proximity to the metropolis, and the absence of manufactures at home, first drew, the natives of these counties to London, and the migration continues to flow thither in unabated force. Labourers, artizans, of various kinds, and the professional classes, go to London probably in less unequal proportions from the various counties.

It naturally happens that the children enumerated in London were nearly all born within its limits, and of 1,186,059 young people under the age of 20, only 196,263 were born elsewhere.

Of the adults of the age of 20 and upwards,. 866,549 were born out of London, and only 751,381 were natives of the soil. The proportion of adult immigrants to natives was 115 to 100, or rather less than 7 to 6.

The men of the age of 20 and upwards who were not natives were in the proportion of 121 to 100 natives; the women in the proportion of 111 to 100.

Table 127

2,061,093 persons in England were born in London, and the distribution of the 319,916 natives of London who were in other counties is shown in Table 127- The attraction between London and the other divisions is not necessarily reciprocal, but the proportion of Londoners bears a certain proportion to the distance of the counties from the metropolis.

Cheshire and Laneashire

The two counties round the Mersey and on the Irish sea were inhabited by 865,791 people at the beginning of this century, while at the last Census their inhabitants amounted to 2,934,868, of whom 2,264,618 were born on the soil, and only 670,250 were strangers by birth, comprising 245,933 natives of Ireland, 42,656 natives of Scotland, 6,348 natives of the Isle of Man and the other islands of the British seas, 102,728 natives of the contiguous county of York, 191,972 natives of the other northern divisions, and only 61,080 natives of London and all the Eastern, Southern, and South-eastern counties.

Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk only sent 6,992 natives to Lancashire and Cheshire, while they sent 156,592 to London.

The tendency of the South Saxon population to emigrate to the North is excessively small; to 1,000 of their inhabitants none of their divisions had more than 5 or 8 natives in Lancashire and Cheshire. Yorkshire is intimately associated with Lancashire and Cheshire by trade and by vicinity, so to 1,000 inhabitants it had 51 natives in those two counties; the Islands in the British Seas and Ireland stand next in order, 44 and 42; Wales (39), the Northern counties (35), the North Midland counties(33), and the West Midland counties (25) follow with decreasing proportions of representatives. Scotland had only 14 in. this division to 1,000 at home. The population of Scotland has evidently a large.field of employment at home, and its natives in England are not so conspicuous in numbers as they are in other respects.

Table 123

The Table (123) deserves careful study; it shows (1) in what counties the inhabitants of each county were born, and (2) the distribution of the natives of each county over every English county and Wales. Thus, to take an example, the population of Cumberland was 205,276, of whom 166,786 were born in the county, and 38,490 were born in other English counties, 10,529 in Ireland, 9,025 in Scotland, over the border and elsewhere. Again, 213,754 of the inhabitants of England were natives of Cumberland, and as only 166,786 were in their native country, 46,968 of them were diffuse all over England; 18,661 in Lancashire and Cheshire, 7,590 in Durham, 6,846 in Northunberland, and 3,713 in Westmorland, 2,657 in Yorkshire, and 2,569 in Middlesex; none of the other counties counting more than a few hundreds of the natives of Cumberland.

Thus Cumberland exported and imported population, the excess being on the side of movement outwards to the extent of a much higher number than 8,478; for 38,490 natives of other parts were in the county, and of the natives who left the county 46,968 were enumerated at the Census in other 'English! counties. And the numbers who went to Scotland, Ireland, the Colonies, and Foreign parts, are not here brought into account. Two Tables (Appendix, 124, 125) show the proportionate number in 10,000 inhabitants born in each county, and the distribution of 10,000 natives over every county.

Table 123

The population of some places consists almost exclusively of natives, but there are only two counties of England in which the natives are in the proportion of more than 9 in 10. In 10,000 inhabitants, Cornwall contained 9,194, Norfolk 9,055 who were born in those counties, which afforded little scope to the industry of the inhabitants of other counties.

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