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FOR the purposes of the census the industries of the population are fairly clearly, though incompletely, defined as being the occupations of the employers. The incompleteness of the definition is specially apparent in the case of three classes of the occupied, viz. : (l) those with professional occupations and many different employers; (2) those in domestic employment, who have no connection with the occupations of their employers; and (3) those engaged in the service of some public body, such as civil servants, and persons in the employment of local authorities. To overcome this difficulty, professions, and Civil and Local Government services, are treated as separate industries. Domestic service is also treated as a separate industry, those with occupations in it being allocated thereto, irrespective of the occupations of their employers.

A full tabulation of the industries of the population, giving the number of persons employed in the various occupations falling under each head, and the numbers enumerated in the respective counties and cities, may be seen in Tables XXXVI. and XXXVII. These two tables are summarised in Tables XXXIV., XXXV., and El.

The total number of occupied persons enumerated in Scotland is 2,066,967, occupied males numbering 1,473,757, and occupied females, 593,210. The industries in which the largest numbers of these occupied are engaged, and the numbers in them, are agriculture, 199,888; domestic and institution service, 192,896; iron manufacture, 170,683; coal industry (mining included), 157,237; preparation and sale of food, 143,581; and house building and decorating, 89,543. The industries which contain the greatest numbers of occupied males are agriculture, 166,770; iron manufacture, 164,198; coal industry, 154,301; preparation and sale of food, 101,444; house building and decorating, 88,213; and shipbuilding, 62,471. The industries in which the greatest number of occupied females are engaged are domestic and institution service, 160,082; tailoring and dressmaking, 49,563; preparation and sale of food, 42,137; agriculture, 33,118; and hemp, jute, rope and mat industry, 32,878.

Those occupied in the industry of agriculture number 199,888, and constitute 9.67 of the total occupied persons enumerated. Males in this industry constitute 11.32 per cent. of the total occupied males, and females, 5.58 per cent. of the total occupied females. The counties in which the largest numbers of males in the industry of agriculture were enumerated are Aberdeen, 22,774; Perth, 10,692; Inverness, 9,465; Forfar, 9,064; Ayr, 8,478; and Ross and Cromarty, 8,437. The counties with the largest numbers of females in the industry of agriculture are Lanark, 2,396; Ayr, 2,364; Ross and Cromarty, 2,301; Inverness, 2,187; Shetland, 2,145; and Aberdeen, 2,006. Of the males in this industry, the largest numbers are labourers in charge of horses, 35,396; labourers in charge of cattle, 13,771; other, or unspecified, agricultural labourers, 22,213; farmers and graziers, 29,932; crofters, 14,019; and farmers' and crofters' sons or other relatives assisting on farms or crofts, 16,621. Of the females, the largest numbers are agricultural labourers, 14,954—6,101 being described as in charge of cattle, and 80 as in charge of horses; daughters and other relatives assisting on farms and crofts, 10,520; crofters, 4,189; and farmers and graziers, 2,665.

Occupied persons in domestic and institution service number 192,896, and constitute 9.33 per cent. of the total occupied. Males in this service are comparatively few, numbering 32,814, and constituting 2.23 per cent. of all occupied males. Occupied females in this industry are numerous, amounting to 160,082, and constituting 26.99 per cent. of all occupied females. Of the males in this service, the largest numbers are gardeners, 10,433; gamekeepers, 5,810; coachmen and grooms, 4,811; motor car drivers and attendants, 2,525; and indoor domestic servants, 2,497. Of the females, by far the largest number are indoor domestic servants, the number being 131,036. Female laundry workers number 1.2,456, and charwomen, 9,082.

In the industry of iron manufacture, occupied males number 164,198, and occupied females, 6,485. The former amount to 11.14 per cent. of all occupied males. The numbers occupied in this industry constitute 8.26 per cent. of the total occupied of both sexes. Of the males in this industry, 92,744 were enumerated in the County of Lanark, 49,541 of them being enumerated within the City of Glasgow; 14,299 were enumerated in Renfrew, 11,200 in Stirling, 8,842 in Ayr, 8,135 in Dumbarton, 7,140 in Edinburgh, and 6,295 in Forfar. Of the males occupied in this industry, 19,061 were returned as erectors, fitters, or turners, 16,097 as blacksmiths or strikers, 15,821 as moulders or core makers, 14,819 as workers in puddling furnaces, rolling mills, or tube manufacture, 9,872 as workers in steel manufacture, 8,271 as foundry labourers, 7,086 as boiler makers, and 5,795 as commercial or business clerks. The occupations of 21,153 workers in this industry were not so clearly denned as to permit of their being included in any of the specified occupations used in the tabulation. Females in this industry are few compared with males, numbering only 6,485, of whom 1,605 are returned as clerks, 1,296 as ironmongers, and 1,582 as "other and undefined workers in engine and machine making."

The total number of persons occupied in the coal industry, which includes both the mining of coal and its distribution, is 157,237, and amounts to 7.61 per cent. of the total occupied. Males in this industry number 154,301, and constitute 10.47 per cent. of the total occupied males, while females number only 2,936. Of the males, the largest numbers are returned in the counties of Lanark, 64,961; Fife, 28,577; Ayr, 15,491; Edinburgh, 12,567; Stirling, 12,493; Linlithgow, 7,260; and Haddington, 3,218. The largest numbers of these are returned as hewers, 86,824; "other workers below ground," 37,637; and workers above ground, 10,798. Coal and coke merchants and dealers number 3,946; clerks, 1,825; carters, 2,450; and coal heavers, 2,616. Of the 2,936 occupied females in the industry, 2,368 are returned as workers above ground at coal mines, and 402 as clerks.

Occupied persons allocated to the industry of the preparation and sale of food number 143,581, and amount to 6.95 per cent. of the total. Males in this industry number 101,444, and amount to 6.88 per cent. of the total occupied males; and females number 42,137, and amount to 7.10 per cent. of the total occupied females. Of the males, large numbers are returned as grocers, 24,329; bread, biscuit, and cake makers, 16,359; butchers, 13,092; vanmen and carters, 7,771; messengers, 6,593; and millers, 2,924. Among those males with occupations connected with shopkeeping and pertaining to this industry, 3,104 are returned as fishmongers or poulterers; 2,970 as milksellers; 4,079 as bakers or confectioners; and 2,705 as greengrocers. Among the females in this industry, 7,444 are returned as bakers or confectioners (dealers); 6,436 as grocers; 4,276 as clerks; 3,900 as bread and biscuit makers; 3,952 as jam, preserve and sweet makers; and 3,366 as greengrocers.

The number of persons occupied in the industry of house building and decorating is 89,543, amounting to 4.33 per cent. of the total occupied. Of these, 88,213 are males, and 1,330 females. The males in this industry amount to 5.99 per cent. of the total occupied males. Of the 1,330 occupied females in this industry, 1,059 are returned as clerks. Of the occupied males large numbers are returned as joiners or carpenters, 24,339; masons, 12,292; painters or paperhangers, 14,760; plumbers or gasfitters, 9,450; slaters or tilers, 5,218; and masons' labourers, 5,139. The decreasing number of males in the various occupations connected with this industry has been commented on in Section D of this report, which deals-with the occupations of the population.

Males in Naval and Military service number 16,149, of whom 8,498 are officers and men of the Navy and Marines, and 6,840 officers and men of the Army. Males in this service not directly serving in either of these forces number 811. Females returned as in this service number 12; their occupations are varied, six being returned as nurses, and one or more under each of the headings teacher, clerk, and chemist.

To the Civil Service 17,950 males and 4,288 females are allocated. Of the former, 3,825 are post office officers or clerks, or telegraphists, or telephone operators; 8,524 are postmen or post office messengers; 3,121 are other Civil Service officers or clerks; 771 are other Civil Service messengers; and 1,709 are in various other occupations. Of the females in this service, 3,915 are in various positions in the post office.

The total number of persons returned as in Local Government service is 71,421, and amounts to 3.46 per cent. of the total occupied. Males in this service number 50,756, and amount to 3.44 per cent. of the total occupied males, and females number 20,665, and amount to 3.48 per cent. of the total occupied females. Among the males in Local Government service there are 5,732 police, 6,091 schoolmasters, 6,182 road labourers, 5,471 workers in gas works, 4,983 workers in tramway service, and 1,846 scavengers and others connected with the disposal of refuse. Among the females in this service the large majority are schoolmistresses, who number 15,025, out of a total of 20,665. The only other group of female workers in Local Government service which numbers more than 1,000 is that of sick nurses, these numbering 1,606.

To the clerical profession with its subordinate services 7,853 persons are allocated— 6,794 being males and 1,0.59 females. Of the males, 1,741 are ministers of the Established Church of Scotland, 1,828 are ministers of the United Free Church, 314 are clergymen of the Episcopalian Church, 473 are priests of the Roman Catholic Church, and 696 are ministers or clergymen of other religious denominations. The majority of females in this service are either missionaries, or scripture readers, or nuns, or sisters of charity, these collectively numbering 895.

The total number in the legal profession with its subordinate services is 12,011— males numbering 9,976, and females 2,035. Of the males, 4,099 are classed as advocates or solicitors, and 5,326 as law clerks. Of the females, the great majority, 1,973, are clerks. The total number in the medical profession with its subordinate services is 14,239— males-numbering 5,303, and females 8,936. Among the males there are 2,892 physicians and surgeons, 1,284 dentists, 257 veterinary surgeons, and 155 sick nurses. Among the females there are 120 physicians and surgeons, 65 dentists, 301 midwives, and 7,938 sick nurses. The last figure is far short of the total number of sick nurses enumerated, for many of them fall to be included in Local Government service, and in domestic and institution service.

To the teaching profession and service, other than the large section of it which falls to be classed under Local Government service, 6,421 persons are allocated, males numbering 2,3.21, and females 4,100. Of the males, 1,840 are professors, lecturers, or schoolmasters, and of the females, 3,597 are so described.

The total number of persons included in the textile industries is collectively 164,531; 17,480 being in cotton industry, 27,888 in wool industry, 1,275 in silk industry, 23,572. in linen industry, 51,483 in hemp, jute, rope, and mat industry, and 42,833 in thread, hosiery, and other textile industries. Of the workers in these industries, 55,384, or approximately one-third, are male, and 109,147, or approximately two-thirds, are female.

Of the occupied persons in the cotton industry, 4,890 are males, and 12,590 females. Of these, the largest numbers were enumerated in the Counties of Lanark, 11,011, and Renfrew, 3,569.

Of the persons in the wool industry, 12,278 are males, and 15,610 are females. They were enumerated in largest numbers in Selkirk, 5,736; Clackmannan, 3,930; Roxburgh, 2,642; and Peebles, 2,544.

Of those in the silk industry, 455 are males, and 820 females. Of these, 1,033 were enumerated in Lanark, and 394 in Renfrew.

Of those occupied in the linen industry, 7,029 are males, and 16,543 are females. Of these, 11,087 were enumerated in Fife, 7,348 in Forfar, 1,591 in Aberdeen, and 1,203 in Renfrew.

Of the persons occupied in the hemp, jute, rope, and mat industry, 18,605 are males, and 32,878 females. Of these, the great majority, 42,292, were enumerated in the County of Forfar, 37,937 of them being enumerated in the City of Dundee. Considerable numbers were also enumerated in Renfrew, 2,197; Fife, 1,449; Lanark, 1,393; and Edinburgh, 1,188.

Of those occupied in thread, hosiery, and other textile industries, 12,127 are males, and 30,706 are females. They were enumerated in largest numbers in Renfrew, 13,460; Lanark, 9,757; Ayr, 7,327; and Roxburgh, 2,608.

Occupied persons connected with the industry of shipbuilding number 63,089, 62,471 being males, and 618 females. Of the males in this industry, 24,286 were enumerated in Lanark, 18,206 in Renfrew, and 11,703 in Dumbarton; 16,843 are returned as platers and riveters, 11,057 as shipyard labourers, 8,163 as shipwrights, 2,489 as blacksmiths and strikers, 2,078 as boilermakers, and considerable numbers in many other classes of occupations.

In the industry of paper and stationery manufacture, 24,176 persons are included, 11,645 being males, and 12,531 females. The largest numbers were enumerated in the Counties of Lanark, 7,953; Edinburgh, 6,194; Aberdeen, 3,477; and Fife, 1,846.

Persons in printing, publishing, and allied industries number 31,791, of whom 19,508 are males, and 12,283 are females. Of these, 11,908 were enumerated in Lanark, 11,181 in Edinburgh, 1,876 in Aberdeen, and 1,646 in Forfar. Of the persons in these industries in the County of Edinburgh, 9,946 were enumerated in the City of Edinburgh, and of those in the County of Lanark, 10,274 were enumerated in the City of Glasgow.

Occupied persons in railway service number 60,100; in the fishing industry, 40,952, of whom 8,236 were enumerated in the County of Aberdeen; in the quarrying industry, 12,830; in the shale industry, 9,081 of whom 6,051 were enumerated in Linlithgow, and 2,346 in Edinburgh; in the chemical and rubber industry, 26,501; in the bleaching and dyeing and allied industries, 20,865, of whom4,673 were enumerated in. Renfrew, 4,575 in Dumbarton, and 3,846 in Perth; and in the tailoring and dressmaking industry, 70,604. Details of the distribution of these industries, and of the classes of occupied persons included in them, need not be elaborated here, but may be seen in the tables already quoted, those numbered XXXIV. to XXXVII.


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