Birth-Places of the Population

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1. General Composition of the Population.

The following short summary shows the constituent parts of which the population of England and Wales was made up at the date of the Census of 1801, while the corresponding figures for 1881 are also given to facilitate comparison:—

1891. 1881. 1891. 1881.
England Wales 27,882,629 24,855,822 96,139 95,694
Scotland 282,271 253,528 973 976
Ireland 458,315 562,374 1,580 2,165
Islands in British Seas 30,370 29,316 105 113
British Colonies or Dependencies 111,627 94,399 385 363
Foreign Parts (British Subjects and Foreigners). 233,008 174,372 803 671
At Sea 4,305 4,628 15 18
Total Population 29,002,525 25,974,439 100,000 100,000
Note.— The tables relating to birth-places are summary tables 7-14 and tables 8-10 in each division, in Vol.III., see also tables 23-27 in Appendix A. to this report.

2. Natives of England and Wales.

Of the 29,002,525 persons enumerated in this country at the last Census, 27,882,629 or 961 per 1,000 were natives of England and Wales, the proportion having scarcely changed since the enumeration of 1881, when it was 957 per 1,000.

It appears from the reports of the Registrar General that in every registration county in England and Wales, without exception, the births registered in the 10 years preceding the Census of 1891 outnumbered the deaths; so that in every county, had there been no migration and no emigration, the population would have been greater in 1891 than at the previous enumeration. The rates of increase would, indeed, have been widely different. In those counties where the. population contained a large proportion of married persons of the reproductive ages, the increase would have been great; in such counties, for instance, as Middlesex, Essex, Durham, and Glamorganshire, the growth due to this "natural increment" would have been from 18 to 20 per cent. Those counties on the other hand in which the proportions of married person of reproduction age were low, would have shown but little increase; such, for instance were Cornwall, Herefordshire, Devonshire, and Shropshire among the English counties, and, in Wales, Cardiganshire, Brecknockshire, Radnorshire, Montgomeryshire, Flintshire, Denbighshire, Merionethshire, Carnarvonshire, and Anglesey, in none of which would the rate of growth have exceeded 11 per cent. Nevertheless, as before said, in every county without exception there would have been some increase; and in none would this increase have been less than 0.8 per cent., which was the rate of natural growth in Anglesey. (Appendix A, Table 31, col 3.).

As a matter of fact, we know that this was not the case. There were no fewer than 13 registration counties (cf. P. 8) in which the population was found, on enumeration, to have diminished. These 13 counties had not only lost all their natural increment, but something over and above this. There were 33 other registration counties, and among these was London, in which the population had, it is true, increased, but in a lower ratio than would have been the case had there been no migration or emigration. The actual increase in these counties was less than the natural increase (Appendix A, Table 31, cols. 3-4). These 45 counties, therefore, had produced more men and women, than they were able to retain and had given off their surplus to other parts. Labour may be said to be one of their staple commodities, which they export to other counties or abroad.

There remain only nine counties in which the actual growth, as shown on enumeration, wan in excess of the natural growth. Those counties which absorbed population from without were Surrey, Middlesex, Essex, Hampshire, Cheshire, Lancashire, Northumberland, Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire.

Notwithstanding, however, the great disturbance produced in the natural distribution of the population by this excessive growth of some counties at the expense of others, the native population show, after all, stationary habits of a very decided character. Of the natives of England and Wales, who were in the country at the date of the Census, 74.86 per cent. were enumerated in their native counties. In 1871 the proportion of these stationary natives, as we may call them, was 74.04 per cent., while in 1881 it was 75.19 per cent., proportions which differ so slightly from that of 1891 that they may be regarded as identical with it. So that it would appear, that, though emigration to foreign countries increased enormously, as we have already seen, between 1881 and 1891, there was no corresponding increase in the migration within the borders of England and Wales themselves, notwithstanding the increased facilities of locomotion, and the extended knowledge possessed by the working classes as to the conditions of life in parts outside their immediate localities.

Comparing the two sexes in this respect, it would appear that women, though they emigrate abroad in far less numbers than men, are somewhat more migratory within the country itself. For 25.8 per cent. of them were living outside their native county in 1891, while the percentage of similarly migrated males was only 24.4. The difference is not very great, but a similar difference was apparent in the returns for 1881; so that it may be looked on as probably a permanent fact. It is, moreover, what might be anticipated priori , seeing how large is the demand in towns for country servants, and how very commonly a woman is removed by marriage from her own native place to that of her husband.

The counties that retain the largest proportion of their natives are, as might be expected, those which offer the best chances of remunerative occupation. Thus, in Lancashire more than 90 per cent. of its enumerated natives were living in the county itself; and more than 80 per cent. in Glamorganshire, Yorkshire, and Durham. The counties that retain the fewest are those in which there are neither mines nor factories, nor other industries than agriculture. Thus, Radnorshire and Rutlandshire had not retained 50 per cent. of their enumerated natives, and the proportion was not much higher in Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire, Oxfordshire, Shropshire, and Brecknockshire. These are, it is true, not only agricultural counties, but, for the most part, counties of very limited dimensions; and, the smaller the area, the less the distance of migration required to take a native outside the boundaries.

3. Natives of Ireland.

Number in England and Wales

There were 458,315 natives of Ireland present in England and Wales at the time of the enumeration; showing a falling off of 104,059, or 18.5 per cent., from the number recorded at the Census of 1881.

This decline was no new thing. In 1841 there were 290,891 Irish-born persons in this country. Then came the terrible famine of 1847, causing a large migration from Ireland, and raising the total in 1851 to 519,959, a number which was further increased to 601,634 in the course of the next 10 years. The number then began to decline, Census by Census, until, as already said, it fell in 1891 to 458,315.

It must, however, be borne in mind, that concomitantly with this gradual decline of the Irish living in this country, there has been a gradual decline in the population of Ireland itself; and, if this be taken into account, it will be found that the Irish in England and Wales, when measured by their proportion to the Irish in their own country, increased with each successive Census up to 1881. For in 1841 there were 36 Irish in this country to 1,000 in Ireland itself; in. 1851 there were 80; in 1861 there were 105; in 1871 there were 107; and in 1881 the proportion reached 111. But in 1891 this continuous advance was arrested, and the proportion fell to 100; the natives of Ireland living in this country being, as before said, 458,315, and those living in Ireland itself numbering 4,581,383.1 It would appear, therefore, that England has exercised a considerably diminished attraction upon the Irish in the last 10 years.

Distribution in counties and towns

The Irishman, though in his own island he is usually engaged in agriculture, betakes himself in this country preferentially to the big towns and the centres of industry, and especially to those which, from their proximity, are most accessible to him.2 Of the 458,315, no less than 184,495, or two-fifths of the whole, were enumerated in Lancashire and Cheshire; in London, with the immediately adjoining counties of Middlesex, Surrey, Kent, and Essex there were 92,969 while the mining and industrial counties of Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, York, Derby, Leicester, Stafford, Warwick, Gloucester, Monmouth, and Glamorgan account for 132,572, leaving only 48,279 in the remaining counties, among which the only ones with any notable share were Hampshire and Devonshire. Taking the whole country the Irish formed 16 per 1,000 of the population; but while in most counties, and especially in the purely agricultural counties the proportion was quite insignificant, it rose in Northumberland to 21, in Durham and in Cheshire to 27, in Cumberland to 36, and in Lancashire to 42 in the 1,000.

If, instead of counties, we look at individual towns, the proportions borne by the Irish residents to the total populations were much higher. In Birkenhead the proportion was 62 per 1,000, in Wigan and in St. Helens 63, in Barrow-in-Furness 82, and in Liverpool 91, while in that ward of this city, which is co-extensive with the Scotland Parliamentary Division, the proportion was no less than 202 in the 1,000.

Their occupations

In what industries are these natives of Ireland engaged? The large proportion of them enumerated in the coal districts shows clearly that to a great extent they are employed in mining, and the somewhat high proportions in such counties as Hampshire and Devonshire, where there are considerable garrisons, point to their employment as soldiers, 30,870 men, or 14 per cent. of our army, being of Irish birth. But what are the occupations of the large numbers of Irish in such cities as London and Liverpool? Iii order to throw some light on this, the enumeration books of Liverpool were gone through, until the stated occupations of 1,000 adult Irishmen in succession had been abstracted; and the results given by this sample were as follows:—

Dock Labourers 458
Coal Porters, Heavers 72
General and other Labourers 108
Watchmen, Porters, Messengers 27
Employed in Gasworks 19
Carmen, Carters 12
Sailors, Ship-firemen, Stokers 129
Artisans 71
Shopkeepers, Dealers, Publicans, Hawkers 53
Others 51
Total 1,000

The Irishmen in this country contribute, as is well-known, distinguished members to every profession and every rank; but the bulk of them, as far as may be inferred from the above sample, are engaged in the rougher kinds of unskilled labour, the proportions of artisans and of dealers of all kinds and grades being very small.

While the number of Irish residents in England and Wales has bean declining, the very much smaller number of English residents in Ireland has been increasing. These amounted3 in 1871 to 67,881, in 1881 to 69,382, and in 1891 to 74,523.

4. Natives of Scotland.

Number in England and Wales

The natives of Scotland who were living in England and Wales at the Census of 1891 numbered 282,271, and of these 144,886 were of the male, and 137,385 of the female sex; the males predominating over the females, as is generally, though not always, the case with those whose birth-place is outside the country of enumeration. The natives of Scotland living in their own country in 1891 numbered 3,688,700, so that there was one Scotchman or Scotchwoman in England and Wales to 13.1 in Scotland. Against the 282,271 Scotch natives in this country may be set 111,045 natives of England and Wales who were in Scotland4 at the date of the enumeration.

At each previous successive enumeration, it has been found that the number of the Scotch living among us had increased not only absolutely, but in proportion to the total population. In 1841 the Scotch element in the population was 6.5 to the 1,000; in 1851 it was 7.3; in 1861 it was 8.4; in 1871 it was 9.4; and in 1881 it had risen to 9.8, the increase in the proportion having so far been uninterrupted. But in 1891 this continuous growth was for the first time arrested, and the proportion fell to 9.7, or very slightly lower than it had been 10 years earlier. Though, however, the proportion of Scotch to the total population thus slightly declined, the actual number living among us increased not inconsiderably, rising from 253,528 in 1881 to 282,271 in 1891, an increase of 11.1 per cent. in the course of the decennium.

Their distribution

The local distribution of the Scotch in this country is determined generally by the factors as is that of the Irish, namely, preferential selection of great towns and centres of industrial activity, and proximity to their own country. But while these conditions are best met in the case of the Irish by Lancashire and Cheshire, it is the Northern Counties that more completely fulfil them for the Scotch. Thus, although the total number of the Irish in England was 62 per cent. greater than that of the Scotch, these latter outnumbered the former very considerably in the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland; the Scotch in this aggregate area numbering 65,952, while the Irish contingent amounted only to 48,400. On the other hand, though there were 65,056 natives of Scotland in Lancashire and Cheshire, there were nearly three times as many Irish as Scotch enumerated in these two counties.

The mining counties, perhaps because many o them are in the north, appear to be even more attractive to the Scotch than to the Irish; for in the 11 mining counties of Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, York, Derby, Leicester, Stafford, Warwick, Gloucester, Monmouth and Glamorgan, there were no fewer than 103,297 Scotch natives, or 37 per cent. of all those living in this country; while the Irish in these counties, though more numerous absolutely, formed only 29 per cent. of their whole number.

Similarly, London and its neighbourhood absorbs a larger proportion of the Scotch than of the Irish; of the latter 92,969, or 20 per cent. of the whole, were enumerated either in London itself or in the adjoining counties of Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, and Essex; while, of the Scotch, the proportion was 28 per cent., the actual number being 78,533. The only counties in which the Scotch element formed any considerable proportion of the population are Cumberland and Northumberland; in the former of which they contributed 44, and in the latter 52, per 1,000 to the total inhabitants; after these came Durham, where the proportion was 26 per 1,000, and in no other county did it reach 17 per 1,000. In towns the proportions were higher than in the counties, and reached 44 per 1,000 in South Shields, 60 per 1,000 in Newcastle, and 73 per 1,000 in Barrow-in-Furness.

5. Natives of other parts of the British Empire.

Natives of Isle of Man and Channel Islands

The population of England and Wales included 30,370 persons who were born in the islands of the British seas, that is to say, in the Isle of Man or in the Channel Islands. In 1841 the natives of these islands, enumerated in England and Wales, were only 11,705, but the number has risen with each successive Census since that date, the increase in the last decennium having been 3.6 per cent. Against the 30,370 persons contributed to our population by these islands in the British seas may be set 19,100 natives of England and Wales enumerated within their borders.

Natives of colonies and dependencies

The country which had the largest share of these islanders was Lancashire closely connected by traffic with the Isle of Man, where 8,815 were enumerated, while there were 1406 more in Cheshire, In Hampshire, closely connected by traffic with the Channel Islands, there were 2,186, while there were 1,384 in Devonshire In London, Which is not only a port, but the centre of attraction to. all immigrants, there were 5,544.

The natives of India and of other dependencies and colonies present in this country numbered 111,627. This element in our population has also increased with each successive Census, doubtlessly, in part because our colonies and dependencies have themselves increased in population and extent. The increase, however, has been greater than can thus be explained. In 1841 the number returned was 17,248; in 1851 it rose 33,688; in 1861 to 51,572; in 1871 to 70,812; in 1881 to 94,399; and, finally, in 1891, as before stated, to 111,627, the increase in the last decennium having been 18.3 per cent.

To the foregoing may be added 4,305 persons born at sea. Some few of these may possibly have been foreign subjects; but, reckoning them all as of British birth, we have altogether a total of 28,769,517 persons enumerated as having been born- either in the United Kingdom or in some part of the British empire; and this total formed 99.2 percent, of the total population; the foreign-born element—that is, the persons born in the dominions of foreign states, whether British or foreign subjects—being, therefore, numerically insignificant.

6. Natives of Foreign States 5

Foreigners by nationality as well as birth

The English Census takes cognisance of birth-places, but not of nationalities, with this exception, that persons who, though born abroad, are yet British subjects are directed to state this fact on their schedules. This, however, they frequently neglect to do; and, consequently, the "persons born in foreign states and not declared to be British subjects" are doubtlessly in excess of the real number of those who arc foreigners both by birth and nationality. To remedy this, it was the practice in former censuses to have recourse to the aid of surnames; and the abstracting clerks were instructed to consider all persons born abroad in European countries, who had distinctly English surnames, to be British subjects, even if no statement to that effect was made on their schedules.

There are, however, clearly very grave objections to this proceeding. How is the clerk to decide what is a distinctly British name? There are many surnames common to, England and foreign countries; and, even when there is some slight difference of spelling between the English name and its foreign equivalent, this is very likely to disappear when the entry is transcribed by the enumerator; Muller to become Miller, Schmidt to become Smith.

It was, therefore, thought wiser in the present Census to discard altogether this unsatisfactory attempt at rectification, and to deal with. the returns as they were made to us leaving the responsibility upon those to whom it properly belonged, namely, the individuals who filled up the schedules.

The former method led to an under-statement of those who were foreigners both by nationality and birth, and an over-statement of the foreign-born British, subjects. The present plan acts in the opposite direction; by it the foreign subjects are somewhat over-stated, while there is a corresponding under-statement of the foreign-born British subjects. This explains how it comes about that in 1881 the foreign-born British subjects were returned as 56,373, whereas in 1891 they were only 34,895. The difference was clue to the inclusion, in the former and higher number, of numerous persons who were judged to be British subjects merely on the doubtful evidence of their surnames.

Much caution, therefore, is necessary in making comparison between the figures for L881 and for 1891, and the safest plan for estimating the extent to which the foreign element in the population underwent alteration in the course of the last decennium will be to ignore &e distinction between those who were and those who were not stated to British subjects and to deal with the aggregate natives of foreign countries. These in 1881 numbered 174,372, and in 1891 had become 233 008 having therefore, increased 33.6 per cent. during the decennium.

British subjects born abroad

Of the 233,008 persons born in foreign states, 34,895 declared themselves to be British subjects, leaving 198,113 who were presumably foreigners both by birth and nationality.

Local distribution of the foreigners

The greater part of the foreigners in England and Wales are there for business purposes, or as sailors on board ships trading with this country. It is therefore in the large towns and centres of industry, or in the ports, that the largest proportions of them are found.

Of the total 198,113, in fewer than 95,053, or nearly one half, were enumerated in London, and 15,536 more in the suburban counties of Surrey, Kent, Middlesex, and, Essex, In Lancashire there were 25,109, with an overflow of 2,254 in Cheshire. In Yorkshire there 15,755; and 14,908 in the mining counties of Durham, Northumberland, and Glamorganshire, not engaged, however, in actual mining, for there were altogether very few foreign miners in this country, but in shipping coals for export or in other businesses connected with foreign traffic.

The town in which the proportion of foreigners to the total population was highest was of course London, where they were 23 to 13000; while there were also, in round numbers, 10 to 1,000 in the adjoining districts of West Ham, Willesden, and. Tottenham, Next to London, the highest proportions were in Cardiff 21, and in South Shields and in Manchester 18, to 1,000; after which came Leeds and Grimsby each with 16, Liverpool and Hull each with 14, and Newport and Swansea each with 12. per 1,000. The only other towns in which the proportion reached 10 per 1,000, were Sunderland, Hastings, and Brighton.

Natives of Asia, Africa, and America

Of these 198,113 foreigners, 1,804 were natives of China, Persia, Arabia, or other parts of Asia; 1,062 were born in Egypt or other parts of Africa; and 26,226 were Americans, 19,740 of them belonging to the United States. The subjects of the United States present in this country in 1881 were 17,767. The increase, therefore, among these sojourners was 11.1 per cent. in the decennium. This contingent of 19,740 persons, from the United States, is, however, as nothing compared with the contribution made by this country to the population of those States; for, as appears from the American Census, no fewer than 1,008,220 persons of English or Welsh birth were enumerated in the United States in 1891, showing an increase of 35.2 per cent, upon the number similarly enumerated in 1881.

Foreigners of European birth

It is, however, to the European foreigners that most interest attaches at the present time, as it is often stated that they are immigrating into this country in such numbers as to come into serious competition with our native population. Their total number, as returned, including men, women, and children, was 168,814; and, as has been already explained, this number—supposing of course no false returns to have been made—is doubtlessly to some extent an over-statement, owing to the inclusion of a certain proportion of persons who though British subjects, neglected to declare themselves as such on their schedules. Of these 168,814 European foreigners by birth and nationality, 101,255 were of the male sex; and, if from these we deduct 7,421 who were boys under 15, and 3,039 who were men of 65 or more years of age, there remain 90,795 adult males, in the general working-period of life, namely, from 15 to 65 years of age. Now, among these male European foreigners were 15,035 sailors, some few of whom may have been under 15 and some few over 65 years of age. The great bulk of them will, however, doubtlessly have been before those ages, and these would have to be deducted from the 90,795 adult males of working ages, in order to arrive at the number of male European foreigners, by birth and nationality, who could possibly come into competition with our own countrymen.

Possibility of fraudulent statement as to nationality

If, then, the European, foreigners present in this country at the time of the enumeration made truthful statements in their schedules as to their birth-places, their total number was very much smaller than is commonly supposed. But can we assume unhesitatingly that their statements were truthful? It is quite conceivable that the apprehension of special taxation or of hindrances in the way of finding employment may have led some of them to disguise their origin by assuming English names giving English towns or counties as their places of birth. There would, however, be difficulties in the way of such a proceeding. For, in the case of foreigners, who could not speak English, the fraud "would almost certainly be detected by the enumerator, especially as on him would generally devolve, in the case of such persons, the duty of filing up the schedule, Still, it is not impossible, nor improbable, that Some of these foreigners may have been cunning enough to carry out successfully the fraudulent design; and one of the registrars in St. George in the East has informed us that he believes that such was done by many Polish or Russian Jews in his sub-district. One other registrar, In Spitalfields, and a third in Mile End Old Town, have expressed to us similar suspicions, but all the remaining registrars in the Bast End of London where the great bulk of the indigent foreigners are aggregated, have informed us in answer to special inquiries, that they have no reason to suspect that any such practice existed in their areas.

It is possible also, and again not improbable, that some of the foreigners, while giving correctly their places of birth, may have palmed themselves off as naturalised British subjects. But there were altogether only 34,895 persons returned as being British subjects, though of foreign birth; and even wore we to allow that every one of these 34,895 persons made a false statement, and was in reality a foreigner by nationality as well as by birth, the addition of them to the recognised foreigners would still make a total vastly below the estimate which apparently is generally formed. On the whole, we fail to find adequate reason for supposing that the aggregate number of foreigners given in the tables has been very materially affected by fraudulent statements.6

Sexes and ages of the European foreigners

The sex and age distribution of the European foreigners, sojourning- in this country differed very widely from that of the total population. The men largely outnumbered the women, as was the case also with the Scotch and Irish colonies. The men come to England in search of work, leaving their wives and families at home. In the general population there were 106 of the female to 100 of the male sex, and 35 per cent of the people were children under 15 years of age; but among the European foreigners there were only 67 females to 100 males, and only 8.8 per cent. of the whole were under 15 borne part of the difference in the distribution is attributable to the large proportion of sailors in the foreign population, and consequently the most marked differences Tin the proportion of the sexes were presented by Sweden, Norway, and Denmark; the males from these maritime countries being from four to seven times as numerous as the females On the other hand the women were almost as many as the men among the natives of Belgium and Switzerland, and actually outnumbered them among the natives of France. This was probably due to the large demand for French-speaking women as governesses, milliners, and maids.

More interesting however than these differences between one set of foreigners and another are the differences between the returns for 1881 and 1891. In 1881 there were 55 females to 100 males among the European foreigners, in 1891 there were 67. In 1881 children under 15 formed 6.4 per cent of the whole of these foreigners; in 1891 the percentage had risen to 8.8. these changes seem to point to a different kind of immigration, and to imply that the immigrants from Europe into this country had been bringing over their wives and children in greater proportion in the last decennium than was the case before then, and this apparently indicates the intention of a more permanent settlement.

The foreign sojourners in this country, who have come from various parts of Europe, are often spoken of as "pauper aliens"; but, if paupers be meant persons supported by the rates, the appellation would scarcely seem to be appropriate, so far, at any rate, as can be judged from the returns of the inmates of workhouses; though, as regards outdoor relief, the Census schedules give, of course, no information. It is in London that the largest proportion of European foreigners reside, and of those that live there much the greater number, and also the poorest, live in the districts of the East End, so that in these, if anywhere, should be found the excess of pauper aliens. Now, there were altogether 36,871 European foreigners living, at the time of the enumeration, in these Eastern districts of London, and of these 36,871 persons only 105, or 2.85 1,000, were inmates of the workhouses, while, out of the other 6,68,243 inhabits, 950, or 13.5 per 1,000, were pauper inmates. In other words, the proportion of paupers among the European foreigners, so far as can be judged from the workhouse returns in the east end of London, was less than one quarter of the proportion of paupers in the remaining population. Of the 105 foreign pauper inmates, 51 were Germans, 16 were French, 14 were Russians or Poles, and five were Swiss, while no other European country contributed more than four.

Of the European foreigners the most numerous were the Germans, 50,599 in number. After these came the Russians and the Poles, together making 45,074; then the French, mustering 20,797, and then, in successive order, with numbers between 10,000 and 5,000 the Italians, Swiss, Butch, Norwegians, and Austrians (including Hungarians), while in no instance did the contribution to our population, furnished by any other State, reach this lower limit.

Occupations of European foreigners

Of the 168,814 European foreigners enumerated in this country 8,470 were children under 10 years of age. Of the remainder the chief occupations are given in the following summary table, which shows the number in each occupational group, in which the total wits as 1,000. It also shows, in another column, from what countries in each case the largest numbers of foreigners came.

Occupation. Number. Countries that supplied the largest number.
Merchants and Brokers 2,676 Germany; France;Turkey
Commercial Clerks 4,049 Germany; France; Switzerland
Commercial Travellers 1,616 Russia and Poland; Germany
Sailors 15,083 Norway; Sweden; Germany; Denmark
Teachers 5,246 Germany; France; Switzerland
Students 1,561 France; Germany
Musicians 3,204 Italy; Germany
Domestic or Inn Servants 12,534 Germany;France;Switzerland
Cooks (not domestic) 2,257 France; Germany; Switzerland; Italy
Tailors 14,735 Russia and Poland; Germany; Austria.
Milliners 2,206 France; Russia and Poland; Germany
Shoemakers 3,778 Russia and Poland; Germany
Hatters 1,068 Russia and Poland
Furriers 1,149 Germany; Russia and Poland
Hairdressers 1,757 Germany; Russia and Poland; France
Butchers 1,549 Germany
Bakers 2,653 Germany
Confectioners 1,015 Italy; Switzerland; Germany
Watchmakers 1,279 Germany; Russia and Poland
Cabinetmakers 2,596 Russia and Poland; Germany
Tobacconist, Tobacco Manufacture 1,467 Russia and Poland; Holland; Germany
Street Sellers 1,891 Italy; Russia and Poland
General Labourers 1,453 Germany


Of the 168,814 European foreigners, no less than 50,599 or nearly one-third; were Germans. Germans, and of these 80,886 were of the male, and 20,213 of the female sex.

The chief occupations followed by these Germans were as follows:—

Teachers 1,981   Cabinet Makers 794
Musicians 1,198   Butchers 1,309
Servants (Domestic and Inn) 5,358   Bakers 2,340
Cooks (not domestic) 659   Sugar Refiners 276
Merchants and Brokers 1,207   Tailors 2,489
Commercial Clerks 1,966   Milliners 400
Commercial Travellers 393   Shoemakers 678
Seamen 2,833   Furriers 514
Jewellers, Goldsmiths 282   Hairdressers 961
Watchmakers 889   General Labourers 592

Russians and Russian Poles

Next numerous to the Germans were the Russians and Russian Pole who together numbered 45,074, of whom 23,626 were Russians and 21,448 were Poles. The Russian and Polish surnames are so distinctive that we may safely compare numbers of these foreigners returned in 1891 with those returned at the Census of 1881 without risk of error from the" cause already mentioned, which renders such comparison impossible in the case of foreigners of other nationalities. The number, then returned in 1881 was 14,468, so that the increase in the course of the 10 years was no less than 212 per cent., having, moreover, been 51 per cent. in the next preceding decennium.

Their main occupations were as follows:—

Teachers 240   Hatters 736
Servants (Domestic and Inn) 484   Furriers 431
Commercial Travellers 751   Tailors 10,571
Commercial Clerks 128   Shoemakers 2,609
Seamen 606   Milliners 464
Painters and Glaziers 536   Hairdressers 298
Cabinet Makers 1,108   India-rubber, Waterproof Workers 351
Tobacconists, Tobacco Manufacture 551   Street Sellers 581


The French sojourners amongst us numbered 20,797; and presented this distinctive feature, when compared with other nationalities, that the females outnumbered the males, there being 10,994 of the former and only 9,803 of the latter. This, as has been previously explained, is due to the great demand for French governesses, maids, and milliners. The main occupations of these French residents were as follows:—

Roman Catholic Priests 146   Commercial Travellers 143
Nuns 261   Commercial Clerks 485
Teachers 1,760   Sailors 1,067
Students 717   Jewellers, Goldsmiths 119
Musicians 174   Painters 168
Servants (Domestic and Cabinet Makers Inn) 2,190   Tailors 214
Cooks (not Domestic) 819   Milliners 831
Merchants and Brokers 245   Hairdressers 153


The foreigners from Italy numbered 9,909, of whom 7,333 were males, while 2,576 were females. Amongst them were

Teachers 85   Figure Makers 175
Musicians 1,441   Inn, Lodging, or Eating house Keepers 223
Servants (Domestic and Inn 837   Confectioners 400
Cooks (not Domestic) 281   Tailors 76
Merchants and Brokers 105   Milliners 80
Commercial Clerks 102   Paviours, &c. 176
Sailors 641   Street Sellers 990
Cabinet Makers 114   General Labourers 135


The Swiss foreigners numbered 6,617, of whom 3,356 were of the male and 3,261 of the female sex. Their main occupations were as follows:—

Teachers 624   Watchmakers 69
Servants (Domestic and Inn) 1,928   Inn, Lodging, Eating house keepers 172
Cooks (not Domestic) 278   Confectioners 203
Merchant and Brokers 108   Tailors 62
Commercial Clerks 368   Milliners 86
Engine Fitters 61   Hairdressers 57


The foreigners from Holland were 6,350, of whom 3,584 were males, and 2,766 were females. Among them were included:—

Teachers 92   Cabinet Makers 76
Musicians 77   Tobacconists, Tobacco Manufacture 492
Servants (Domestic and Inn) 2,190   Tailors 212
Merchants and Brokers 142   Milliners 62
Commercial Travellers 66   Shoemakers 87
Commercial Clerks 160   General Shopkeepers 80
Seamen 482   Street Sellers 72

Austrians and Hungarians

The natives of Austria (Hungary included) were 5,673, of whom the males 3,763, and the females 1,910, Among them were:—

Teachers 100   Cabinet Makers 109
Musicians 86   Hatters 125
Servants (Domestic and Inn) 436   Tailors 592
Merchants and Brokers 127   Milliners 61
Commercial Travellers 114   Shoemakers 145
Commercial Clerks 182   Hairdressers 118
Seamen 179   Furriers 134
      Jewellers, Silversmiths 91


Belgium contributed 3,917 persons, 2,9003 males and 1,914 females, to our population. Among them were:—

Roman Catholic Priests 82   Commercial Clerks 86
Nuns 55   Seamen 131
Teachers 198   Cabinet Makers 69
Students 96   Tobacconists, Tobacco Manufacture 77
Servants (Domestic and Inn) 318   Tailors 70
Cooks (not Domestic) 67   Milliners 112


The Spaniards were 2,244 in number, 1,511 males and 733 females. Among them were:—

Teachers 30   Merchants and Brokers 42
Students 94   Commercial Clerks 86
Servants (Domestic and Inn 88   Seamen 685


Norway contributed to our population 6,265 persons, of whom 5,460 and 807 were of the male and female sex respectively. Among them were:—

Servants (Domestic and Inn) 201   Commercial Clerks 144
      Seamen 4,458


The Swedes numbered 4,624, of whom 3,722 were of the male and 902 of the female sex. Among them were:—

Servants (Domestic and Inn) 271   Seamen 2,325
Merchants and Brokers 77   Tailors 261
Commercial Clerks 89   General Labourers 105


The Danes amounted to 3,113, of whom 2,480 were of the male and 633 of the female Danes sex. Amounted them were:—

Servants (Domestic and Inn) 150   Gardeners 55
Merchants and Brokers 64   Cabinet Makers 67
Commercial Clerks 96   Tailors 68
Seamen 1,271   General Labourers 50

The number contributed to the population by other European States were inconsiderable. There were 658 Portuguese, of whom 127 were seamen. There were 997 Greeks, of whom 79 were Merchants or Brokers, and 213 were Seamen. There were 1,241 Turks, of whom 169 were Merchants or Brokers, 72 Commercial Clerks, and 41 Seamen; and finally there were 703 Roumanians, 20 Bulgarians, and 11 Servians.

The occupations of all these European foreigners are given in detail in Table 14 of Volume III., pp. xli-lvi.

1 Irish Census. Report, Part II, page 394.

2 It must be remembered that the Census was taken at the beginning of April, that is, before the annual influx of migratory Irish agricultural labourers had begun. Of these, according to the official returns of the Irish Registrar-General, 10,899 came into England in the summer of 1891.

3 Irish Census Report, Part II, p. 28.

4 Scotch Census, Vol. II., Part I., p. xxii.

5 The following are the chief tables relating to foreigners:—Vol.III., Summary Tables 7,9,10,11 relate to their numbers and distribution; Summary Table 12 relates to their ages; Summary Table 13 to their ages and condition as to marriage; and Summary Table 14 to their occupations; Tables 11-14 being confined to European foreigners

6 We have to express our thanks to the Jewish Board of Guardians, who prepared for us a circular in Hebrew and in German, as to the objects of the Census, and the needlessness of apprehension of any evils from making truthful returns. This circular was distributed to the foreign Jews on London with the ordinary schedule.

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