Occupations (2): Analysis of Orders

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4. Analysis of Orders and Sub-Orders.

Before proceeding to examine in detail the results of the tabulation as regards persons employed in separate industries or groups of industries, it is necessary to direct attention to the fact that the numbers classed under any occupational heading at successive Censuses are affected by (1) Changes in the Method of Classification at the Census Office, (2) Changes in the Mode of filling-up the Schedules, and (3) Actual Changes in the Numbers of People following an Occupation.

The changes of the first kind have been set forth in Table 33, Appendix A.; but, as these are very numerous and there are many risks of error in attempting to compare the figures under a given heading at one Census with those under the same or a similar heading at another Census, we have deemed it well to construct a Table (No. 34 in Appendix A.) giving such comparisons as can be made with reasonable approach to accuracy, rather than leave to students of statistics the dangerous task of constructing such a Table for themselves. By grouping together headings that have been affected by changes in the classified list or in methods of tabulation, we have been able to reduce to small dimensions: most of the errors arising from these causes. But, while it is known whether or not any occupational heading or group is affected by the method of classifies tion, changes arising from the mode of filling-up the schedules are not so easily dealt with. There is no doubt that occupations have been more definitely and correctly returned at the Census of 1901 than at previous Censuses; and this, while it has increased the value of the later figures in themselves, has impaired their value for purposes of comparison. Thus, in the case of males: the number of General Labourers has been reduced from 594,128 to 409,773; of Artizans, &c., undefined, from 52,266 to 17,330; of Warehousemen, &c., from 24,559 to 14,872; and of Factory Labourers, undefined, from 28,043 to 23,663. These reduced figures do not necessarily mean an actual reduction of Labourers, Warehousemen, &c.; they are at least in part the result of transfer from indefinite to definite headings. Hence the apparent increase in some specific employments may be obtained at the expense of undefined occupations. It follows, therefore, that the figures under many definite headings for the Censuses of 1881 and 1891 are understated to some unknown extent in comparison with those for 1901, while those for indefinite headings are generally overstated. This fact must be steadily kept in mind when drawing inferences respecting the increase or decrease of any occupation or group of occupations.

In the course of our analysis of the Orders and Sub-orders, it will be desirable in some cases to compare the numbers returned in 1891 and 1901 for Counties in which, a particular industry is principally carried on. The occupational returns for 1891 having been tabulated according to Registration Counties, and those for 1901 according to Administrative Areas only, it has been necessary to prepare figures for 1901 for the corresponding Registration Counties, in order to institute a fair comparison; these figures are not presented in tabular form, having been prepared solely for purposes of comparison.

The following figures show the total populations at the last three Censuses, together with the rates of increase in the two decennia, and similar figures for ages 10 years and upwards to which the occupational statistics relate. The-rates of increase will afford a ready means of comparing the distribution and occupational movement of the people in various industries with the growth of Population.

All Ages. 1881. 1891. 1901. Increase
per cent
per cent
Persons 25,974,439 29,002,525 32,527,843 11.7 12.2
Males 12,639,902 14,052,901 15,728,613 11.2 11.9
Females 13,334,537 14,949,624 16,799,230 12.1 12.4
Ages 10 years and upwards          
Persons 19,306,179 22,053,857 25,323,844 14.2 14.8
Males 9,313,666 10,591,967 12,134,259 13.7 14.6
Females 9,992,513 11,461,890 13,189,585 14.7 15.1

The numbers engaged in 1881, 1891 in the most important industries or groups of industries are compared with the growth of population at ages 10 years and upwards in Appendix A, Table 35.


Civil Service

The number of persons classified under the First Order as engaged in the General or Local Government of the Country was 198,187, showing an increase of 37.3 per cent. on the numbers so returned in 1891. In the several branches of the Civil Service there were returned 116,413 persons, 100,339 males and 16,074 females, representing an increase of 46.5 per cent on the numbers in 1891, 44.2 per cent. for males and 62.8 per cent. for females.1 Of this total, 42,475 males and 14,312 females were classed as officers and clerks, and 57,864 males and 1,762 females as messengers, telegraph messengers, porters, letter carriers, charwomen, &c. These numbers are exclusive of Dockyard and other artificers and labourers in Government establishments, who have been classed according to their craft, and of Post Office Telegraph or Telephone Operators and Clerks, who form a large proportion of the 13,563 males and 9,256 females returned under "Telegraph, Telephone— Service" (see Order VI).


The Police; numbered 44,904, and exceeded the total in 1891 by 12.5 per cent.; Police. There was one policeman to every 724 of the population in 1901, as against one to every: 7.6 in 1891. In 1881 there had been one policeman to every 799 of the population.

Local Officers

The number of officers employed by County, Municipal, and other local authorities amounted to 36,870, being an increase of 47.9 per cent. on the number so returned at the previous Census. The total consisted of 26,444 males and 10,426 females, representing an increase on the corresponding numbers for 1891, of 33.8 and 101.9 per cent. respectively.


The Second Order refers to the Army, Navy and Marines at home. The Army as enumerated in England and Wales numbered 112,822, and the Royal Navy, and Marines 55,410, officers and men. From special returns, however, supplied to us from the. War Office and the Admiralty, we have been able to construct a separate table (Appendix A., Table 51), showing the number and ages of the members of each of these bodies, whether at home or abroad.. The entire Army comprised 441,935 persons, of whom 13,475 were commissioned officers, 397,300 were non-commissioned officers and men, while the rank of 31,160 was not stated. There was an increase of 219,076 or 98.3 per; cent. upon the number in 1891, attributable mainly to the South African War. The total number of men of all ranks in the Royal Navy, whether at home or abroad, was 90,559, or 70.9 per cent. above the number in 189.1, which was 52,982. An examination of Table 51 shows that, in the Navy, service commences at an earlier age and continues to a later age than in the Army. Of the sailors whose ages were stated, 24.0 per cent. were under 20, but of the soldiers only 12.7; of the former, 64.7 were from 20 to 35 years of age, but of the latter, 77.5; while the percentage over 35 years was 10.4 for sailors but only 9.8 for soldiers. The total force of the Royal Marines at home or abroad consisted of 18,913 officers and men, showing an increase, of nearly 40 per cent. upon the number in 1891.


In the Third Order, under the head of Professional Occupations and their Subordinate Services, 606,260 persons were returned, showing an increase of 19.4 per cent. on the corresponding number in 1891. This heterogeneous order, considered as a whole is of very little statistical value, comprising as it does—not only the Barristers, Solicitors, and Doctors, but also the Lawyers' Clerks and the Sick Nurses—not only the Painters, Musicians, and Actors, but also many of their subordinates, whom it would be absurd to class as professional persons according to the ordinary acceptation of that term.

Clerical Profession

At the recent Census there were enumerated 25,235 Clergymen of the Established Church; they had increased since 1891 by only 4.1 per cent., as against 11.9 per cent. in the previous intercensal period. The Roman Catholic Priests (including Monks) numbered 3,088 against 2,511 in 1891, their increase being equal to 23.0 per cent., as compared with an increase of 20.2 per cent. in the previous ten years. The numbers for 1901 include only 833 European Foreigners, compared with 365 in 1891. The Ministers and Priests of other religious bodies numbered 11,572, the increase being 15.1 per cent. on the number enumerated in 1891, the rate of increase in the preceding intercensal period having been only 3.3 per cent. Taking the three headings together, there were, including Monks, 39,895 Clergymen, Priests, and Ministers, in 1901, 36,800 in 1891, and 33,486 in 1881. Thus during the past ten years the numbers have only increased 8.4 per cent., compared with 9.9 per cent during the previous decennium, the rate of increase being in both periods considerable below that of the entire population.

The relative numbers of Clergymen of the Established Church, Roman Catholic Priests and Ministers of other religious Bodies varied greatly in different parts of the country. The following Table shows the 11 English Counties in which the second and third of these groups were together highest (in every case exceeding 56 per cent.) in proportion to the first group; and also the 11 English Counties in which they were together lowest (in no case reaching 30 per cent.) in proportion to the first group:—

Administrative Counties
(inclusive of
County Boroughs).
Proportions to 100 Clergymen
of the Established Church.
Administrative Counties
(inclusive of
County Boroughs).
Proportions to 100 Clergymen
of the Established Church.
(including Monks).
of others
Total. Roman
(including Monks).
of others
Monmouthshire 10.3 127.7 138.0 Lincolnshire 3.1 26.6 29.7
Lancashire 48.0 73.7 121.7 Buckinghamshire 3.5 25.9 29.4
Northumberland 19.4 64.1 83.5 Wiltshire 2.4 26.9 29.3
Yorkshire— West Riding 12.7 70.4 83.1 Dorsetshire 8.0 20.4 28.4
Cheshire 12.8 60.0 72.8 Berkshire 6.4 21.9 28.3
Durham 20.1 52.0 72.1 Suffolk 3.2 23.3 26.5
Yorkshire—East Riding (together with C.B. of York) 12.0 57.9 69.9 Norfolk 2.2 22.8 25.0
Middlesex 15.2 51.3 66.5 Westmorland 3.6 18.9 22.5
Staffordshire 16.9 47.7 64.6 Oxfordshire 5.1 15.9 21.0
London 17.0 39.5 56.5 Herefordshire 5.5 15.4 20.9
Yorkshire—North Riding 19.6 36.7 56.3 Rutlandshire 4.3 13.0 17.3

In the Welsh Counties the numbers of Roman Catholic Priests were generally very small; the highest proportions they bore to Clergymen of the Established Church were 10.0 per cent. in Glamorganshire and 33.3 per cent. in Flintshire. The ministers of other Religious Bodies, however, exceeded in number the Clergymen of the Established Church in every Welsh County except Pembrokeshire and Radnorshire; in Carmarthenshire the proportion of such Ministers to 100 Clergymen was as much as 154.5, in Carnarvonshire it was 183.7, in Merionethshire 200.0, and in Glamorganshire 213.9.

To the Clergy and Ministers there may be added 10,096 Missionaries, Scripture Readers, and Itinerant Preachers, 6,219 Nuns or Sisters of Charity, and 6,206 Church. Officers, making a total of 62,416 persons connected with the Clerical Profession.

Legal Profession

The Barristers and Solicitors together numbered 20,99 ft, and were in excess of the number enumerated in 1891 by 5.1 per cent. The Law Clerks are shown as 34,433 (of whom 367 were women), the increase being 25.0 per cent. on the number enumerated at the previous Census. Taking these totals together, the legal profession numbered 55,431, compared with 47,518, showing an increase of 16.7 per cent. of the number returned at the preceding Census. Of the total, not fewer than 15,627 were enumerated in London.

Medical Profession

The persons returned as Physicians, Surgeons, or General Practitioners numbered 22,698, against 19,037 in 1891, showing an increase of 19.2 per cent., as compared with. an increase of 25.9 per cent in the interval between the two Previous Censuses. Among the 22,698 persons practising medicine in 1901 there were 212 women, against 101 the year 1891.


Persons who returned themselves as Dentists or Dentists' Assistants were 5,309 in number (of whom 140 were women), as against 4,973 in 1891, No reliable comparison can be made as between these figures, for at the Census of 1891 the makers of artificial teeth and other dental apparatus were included among Dentists, whilst they now appear under "Surgical Instrument Makers" in Order XL.

Veterinary Surgeons

The number of persons classed as Veterinary Burgeons has fallen from 3,193 in 1891 to 2,941 in 1901. There are, however, at least two cogent reasons why these figures should not be accepted without examination. In the first place, at the date of the recent Census the War in South Africa doubtless required the services there of a number of Veterinary Surgeons who are ordinarily employed at home. In the second place, there is reason to believe that less care was observed in returning occupations at the Census of 1891 than at the more recent Census, and that, on the former occasion its compared with the latter, there was greater tendency for farriers to describe themselves, in the schedules, as Veterinary Surgeons.

Sick Nurses, Midwives, Invalid Attendants, &c.

To a small extent only have women entered into the three foregoing professions, their membership therein being represented by 355 out of a total of 30,948. If, however, the medical sub-order be taken as a whole, we find that females greatly predominate in Dumber over the other sex, owing to the larger numbers engaged in the important duties of Sick Nurse, Midwife, and Invalid Attendant. Not fewer than 67,269 women were engaged in these offices in 1901, the rate of increase being 26.8 per cent. on the number in 1891. Mid wives were not separately abstracted at the previous Census, but in 1901 they numbered 3,055, against 2,646 in 1881, an increase of 15.5 per cent. within a period of 20 years. If to these Nurses and Midwives there be added 26,341 women who were classified in Order IV under "Hospital and Institution Service," and 10,426 women classified in Order I as "Municipal, Parish, &c., Officers" (the greater number of the latter being engaged at Workhouses and Workhouse Infirmaries), the aggregate amounts to 104,036 as against 73,723 in 1891, showing an increase of 41.1 per cent., from which it appears that, in 1901, one out of every 40 occupied females was engaged in attendance on the poor, the sick, or the infirm.

Teaching Profession

The number of School-masters and Mistresses, Teachers, Professors, and Lecturers, employed in education of all grades, exclusive of Teachers of music who are classed with musicians in sub-order 7 of this order, was 230,345, and of these 171,670, or 74.5 per cent., were females. There were also 4,427 persons classified as "Concerned in Teaching," making a total of 234,772. In 1891 the number of Teachers, Professors, &c., had been 195,021, of whom 144,393, or 74.0 per cent., were females. Accordingly, in the 10 years the male teachers increased by 15.9 per cent., and the female teachers by 18.9 per cent. The total increase in both sexes together was 18.1 per cent.; in the previous intercensal period the rate of increase had not exceeded 15.5 per cent.

According to the returns of the Board of Education there were 36,207 male and 113,597 female Teachers in Elementary Day Schools in 1901, the male teachers having increased since 1891 by 15.1 per cent. and the females by no less than 50.5 per cent.; and, whereas there were 240 female to 100 male teachers in the earlier year, the ratio had increased to 314 to 100 in 1901.

At the Census of 1871, which practically corresponds with the introduction of compulsory elementary education, there was one teacher enumerated, on the average, for every 67 persons living at ages from three to 20 years. In 1881 there was one for every 58, in 1891 one for every 56, and in 1901 one for every 50. In the period of 30 years, 1871-1901, coincidently with the increase of teachers, the proportion of persons who could not sign the marriage register otherwise than by mark fell from 194 to 25 per 1,000 among males, and from 268 to 29 per 1,000 among females.

Literary and Scientific

Under the head of "Literary and Scientific" pursuits, there were returned 14,428 males and 1,951 females. Of these, 9,811 males and 1,249 females were described as Authors, Editors, Journalists, Reporters, or Shorthand Writers, as compared with 7,485 males and 787 females in 1891; this represents an increase of 31.1 per cent. among males and 58.7 per cent. among females.

Engineers and Surveyors

The Civil and Mining Engineers together numbered 11,052, or 15.1 per cent. more than in 1891, when the total was 9,605. In this sub-order were also included 6,414 males returned as Land, House, or Ship Surveyors. The increase under this, heading since the preceding Census was 578 or 9.9 per cent.

Art, Music, Drama

The number classed under "Art, and Drama" totalled 102,305 as against 79,115 in 1891, but the returns under some of the constituent headings are not altogether satisfactory. Painters Engravers, and Sculptors (Artists), numbered 13,949; Architects numbered 10,781 against 7,842 in 1891, and Photographers 14,999 against 10,571. The Actors numbered 6,044 and the Actresses 6,443 against 3,625 and 3,696 respectively in 1891, representing an increase in the total of 70,6 per cent. Actors and Actresses have increased since 1881 by 173.5 per cent. Musicians, Music Masters, and Singers, who, between 1881 and 1891, increased by 51.1 per cent., do not appear to have advanced during the last decennium at nearly so great a rate. The numbers now returned amount to 20,605 males and 22,644 females against 19,495 males and 19,111 females in 1891, but the figures at that Census included Organ Grinders, now referred to "Art, Music, Theatre—Service, &c."—partly in consequence of this, the latter heading increased from 2,493 to 6,840.

Exhibitions, Games, &c.

Under the head "Exhibitions, Games, &c.," which includes, among others, Performers, Showmen, and persons employed in Athletic Sports and Race Course Service, there were enumerated 12,516 men and 948 women, together 13,464 persons, as compared with 9,095 in 1891, showing an increase of 480 per cent.


The Fourth Order is composed of persons employed in Domestic Indoor or Out-door service and in other allied offices, of whom there were returned 304,195 males and 1,690,722 females. The Order, as now constituted, differs considerably from that of 1891. Gamekeepers are, for the first time, included in this Order, in which also Domestic Coachmen, Grooms, and Domestic Gardeners are separately shown, instead of appearing, as in. 1891, in other Orders with those not in Service. On the other hand,. Inn and Hotel Servants, including Barmen, Barmaids, Waiters, &c. but not Domestic Servants, have now been. transferred to Sub-order 4 of Order XX.—(Board, Lodging, and Dealing in Spirituous Drinks).

But although, in consequence of the foregoing changes, comparison between the totals for the entire Domestic Order is impossible, nevertheless, if we exclude Sub-order 2 (Domestic Outdoor Service) which contains 179,932 males and 36 females, the Following comparison may be made:—

Census Year. Persons. Males. Females. Increase (+) or Decrease (-) per cent.
since previous Census
Persons. Males. Females.
1881 1,593,685 74,915 1,518,770
1891 1,809,645 94,409 1,715,236 13.6 26.0 12.9
1901 1,814,949 124,263 1,690,686 0.3 31.6 -1.4

From these figures we see that in the last decennium the males in this group increased by 31.6 per cent. against 26.0 per cent. in the preceding decennium; whilst, if the figures are trustworthy, the females, so far from increasing in the last decennium, have actually decreased by 1.4 per cent.

Domestic Indoor Servants

Domestic Indoor Servants were first shown separately in 1851. The numbers classed as such at that and subsequent Censuses were as follows:—

Census Year. Persons. Males. Females. Increase (+) or Decrease (-) per cent.
since previous Census
Persons. Males. Females.
1851* 825,964 74,323 751,641
1861* 1,024,862 62,076 962,786 24.1 -16.5 28.1
1871* 1,275,747 68,369 1,207,378 24.5 10.1 25.4
1881 1,286,668 56,262 1,230,406 0.9 -17.7 1.9
1891 1,444,694 58,527 1,386,167 12.3 4.0 12.7
1901 1,394,929 64,146 1,330,783 -3.4 9.6 -4.0
* The figures for 1851, 1861, and 1871 include "Retired" Domestic Servants.

The increase of 9.6 per cent. in the number of male Domestic Indoor Servants in the test intercensal period is partly due to changes of classification (see Appendix A., Table 33). It is noteworthy that the number of males under this heading included 4,748 European. foreigners in 1901, as against 1,347 only in 1891, Excluding such foreigners, the increase in each of the periods 1881-1891 and 1891-1901 was at the rate of 3.9 per cent.

The recent Census is the first that has shown a decrease in the number of Females classed as Domestic Indoor Servants. But as already explained (pp. 76-77), the figures for 1891 are not precisely comparable either with those for 1901 or with those for 1881 and earlier Censuses. The actual number of Female Domestic Servants therefore may be assumed to have increased by less than 12.7 per cent. in the period 1881-1891, and either to have decreased by less than 4.0 per cent. or to have slightly increased in the period 1891-1901. In consequence, however, of the doubt as to the true number in 1891, recourse must be had for purposes of comparison, to the number in 1881.

In the period of 20 years between 1881 and 1901, we find that female Domestic Indoor Servants increased by only 8.2 per cent., while-the entire population advanced 25.2 per cent. It is noteworthy that the increase was limited to women aged 20 years and upwards, among whom it amounted to 28.5 per cent. in the 20 years, while among girls under the age of 20 years there was a decrease during the same period equal to 12.3 per cent. The following Table shows the age distribution of female Domestic Servants in 1881 and 1901, and also the rates of increase or decrease at each age-group.

Ages. 1881. 1901. Increase (+)
or Decrease (-)
per cent.
in 20 years.
Number. Proportion
per 1,000.
Number. Proportion
per 1,000.
Under 15 98,190 79.8 64,802 48.7 -34.0
15— 430,177 349.7 398,630 299.6 -7.3
20— 301,474 245.0 351,242 263.9 16.5
25— 295,302 240.0 392,973 295.3 33.1
45— 88,506 71.9 106,186 79.8 20.0
Over 65 16,757 13.6 16,950 12.7 1.2
Total 1,230,406 1000.0 1,330,783 1000.0 8.2

There can be no doubt that the administration of the Education Acts in recent years, by raising the "school age," has tended greatly to limit the domestic employment of girls below the age of 15 years; but this cannot have caused the reduction between 15 and 20 years of age. The decrease of 7.3 per cent. in the number of Domestic Servants at ages between 15 and 20 years, notwithstanding an increase of 28.1 per cent. in the number of females living at these ages, suggests the conclusion that young women are preferring other employments.

If the number of separate schedules returned at the Census be accepted as indicating the number of separate families, then the proportion of Female Domestic Servants affords a rough measure of the standard of comfort in which a community is living.: It should, however, be borne in mind that custom varies widely in different parts of the country as to the proportion of domestic assistance considered indispensable for the maintenance of a family in a given degree of comfort. Taking England and Wales as a whole, there were 18 female Domestic Servants (excluding those in Hotels, &c.2 ) to each 100 separate occupiers or families. In Table 35A, which appears in most of the County Parts, the proportion of female domestic servants to separate occupiers is shown for every Urban District with a population exceeding 5,000. The Boroughs and Districts showing the highest proportions were Hampstead with 79.8 per cent., Kensington 74.9, Great Crosby 72.5, Surbiton 69.7, Ealing 68.6, Weybridge 68.4, Chislehurst 65.7, and Hove 65.3. Altogether there were 21 Urban Districts with proportions exceeding 50 per cent., and of these 3 were in London and 11 in the four counties adjoining. The Urban Districts which showed the lowest proportions were Oswaldtwistle 2.7 per cent., Kearsley 3.4, Brierfield 3.5, Church 3.9 (all in Lancashire), Golcar 3.4, and Haworth 3.7, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. In the aggregate, there were 26 Urban Districts with fewer than five female domestic servants to 100 separate occupiers, 15 of these being in Lancashire, 8 in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 2 in Leicestershire, and 1 in Nottinghamshire. Among County Boroughs the highest proportions were 56.9 per cent. in Bournemouth, 37.6 in Bath, 34.3 in Croydon, 33.6 in Hastings, and 32.9 in Oxford. The lowest were 5.9 per cent. in Burnley, 7.1 in Oldham, 7.2 in Stockport, 7.2 in Blackburn, 7.4 in Rochdale, 7.6 in Halifax, and 7.8 in Bury.

With respect to the proportion of Male Domestic Indoor Servants (excluding those in Hotels, &c.) to 100 separate occupiers or families, particulars are given for the Metropolitan Boroughs, in which were enumerated 15,425 out of the total of 47,893 Male Domestic Servants in England and Wales. The City of Westminster showed the highest proportion, namely, 12.5 per cent., after which followed Chelsea 7.8, St. Marylebone 5.3, and Kensington 5.1 per cent.


At the recent Census there were returned 111,841 Charwomen, showing an increase of 6.7 per cent. on the number so returned in 1891. In the decennium 1881-91 the number of Charwomen had increased by 13.3 per cent. Taking Female Domestic Servants and Charwomen together, there was, on an average, only 1 to every 23 persons in 1901, while in 1881 there had been 1 to every 20.

Other Services

Besides the foregoing, there were returned under this sub-order 6,765 males and 1,680 females as engaged in College and Club service, 6,900 males and 8,615 females as Cooks (not domestic), 17,290 males and 13,314 females as Caretakers, or as Office, Park, Lodge, or Gate Keepers (not Government); 8,874 males and 196,141 females as engaged in Laundry and Washing Service, and 10,653 males and 26,341 females as engaged in Hospital and Institution Service. Disregarding minor changes in classification, it will be found that, since the previous Census, the males engaged in Laundry and Washing Service have increased by 28.4 per cent., whilst the females have increased by 5.9 per cent. only. In the Hospital and Institution Service the males have increased by 53.2 per cent. and the females by 69.9 per cent., as compared with increases of 62.8 and 34.5 per cent. respectively between 1881 and 1891. Nurses in Hospitals and Institutions are not included in these numbers; they are classified with all other nurses under Order III.

Domestic Outdoor Service

Coachmen and Grooms in private employ numbered 75,355, and Domestic Gardeners 87,936, but, as already stated, comparative figures cannot be given with respect to these occupations. The occupation of Gamekeeper was followed at the last Census by 16,677 men, showing an increase of 20.7 per cent. on the number enumerated in 1891.


The Fifth Order relates to persons employed in Commercial Pursuits, comprising, amongst others, Merchants, Agents, Accountants, and Business Clerks, together with those engaged in the Banking and Insurance Services. It had a total of 530,685 males and 59,944 females, the numbers under nearly all the headings showing considerable increase compared with 1891.

Merchants, Agents, Buyers

Merchants are included in this order only when no mention is made of the commodity in which they deal, or when they are described in exclusive relation to the country with which they trade—e.g., Brazilian, Egyptian, or Peruvian Merchant; Salesmen and Buyers are included here only when their occupations are imperfectly described. The main body of Merchants, Salesmen, and Buyers will be found in the orders relating to the commodities in the sale of which they are concerned. Excluding Merchants, Salesmen, and Buyers, the number of persons returned under this commercial order rose during the decennial period 1891-1901 from 383,323 males and 19,776 females to 523,639 males and 59,377 females, there being an increase of 36.6 per cent. on the males, 200.2 per cent. on the females, and 44-6 per cent. on the total.

Commercial or Business Clerks

Commercial or Business Clerks increased between 1891 and 1901 from 247,229, including 17,859 females, to 363,673, including 55,784 females, or in the proportion of 47.1 per cent. Among male clerks the increase was equal to 34.2 per cent., whilst the female clerks more than trebled in number. The ratio of female to male clerks increased from 7.8 per cent. in 1891 to not less than 18.1 per cent. in 1901. It has frequently been contended that clerks from Germany and other European countries are steadily displacing English clerks in places of business, but in this respect the figures show that the proportion of such foreigners returned as Commercial clerks fell from 1 in 57 to 1 in 64 of the total male clerks.


The persons classed as Accountants in 1901 numbered 9,028, or 13.1 per cent. more than at the previous Census; it is, however, desirable to mention that in cases where the term accountant appeared to signify nothing more than book-keeper, or accountant's clerk, the entry was, on both occasions, referred not to the present heading but to "Commercial Clerk."

Brokers, Agents, Factors, Commercial Travellers

The two headings relating to Brokers, Agents, Factors, and to Commercial Travellers—are less satisfactorily denned than the preceding; many persons who should have been described as hawkers doubtless having returned themselves either as agents or as travellers. If, however, the figures be accepted as they stand, Brokers, Agents, and Factors appear to have increased by 14.4 per cent., from 37,053 to 42,387, and Commercial Travellers by 46.0 per cent., from 44,055 to 64,322, since the previous Census. Among Commercial Travellers one in every 40 was a European foreigner at the date of the last Census, whilst in 1891 the ratio had been as high as one in 27.


Auctioneers, Appraisers, Valuers, and House Agents increased from 11,830 to 14,020, or 18.5 per cent.


The Banking Service increased in the last decennium from 20,885 to 30,292, or at the rate of 45.0 per cent.; but if we include in the same class Bill Discounters, Brokers and Finance Agents the increase is reduced to 43.1 per cent.


The Insurance Service as a whole has grown from 31,437 persons in 1891 to 56,388 in 1901, the rate of increase being not less than 79.4 per cent. At the recent Census the Insurance Service was divided into two groups, the one consisting of 21,961 officials and clerks, the other of 34,427 agents, the latter group thus constituting 61.1 per cent. of the total.


We have already3 spoken of the suggestion made by the Home Office and the Board of Trade that we should distinguish Dealers from Makers in this Report, and of the measures we adopted in order to carry out this and other suggestions. These Departments further suggested that Dealers should be eliminated from the several Orders in which Makers are classified and should be divided into (1) "Wholesale Merchants and Dealers," and (2) "Shopkeepers and Retail Dealers"; the former to be shown under a single heading, and the latter to be constituted a separate Order with Sub-orders for (1) Those dealing in Food, (2) Those dealing in Textile Fabrics and Clothing, (3) Other Shopkeepers, and (4) Other Retail Dealers.

To this suggestion we felt ourselves, after mature consideration, unable to accede. In the first place, an attempt to discriminate between Wholesale and Retail Dealers would necessarily increase the complexity of the Occupiers' Schedule; and, since the line of demarcation between these two classes is not always very definite, the practical value of such information as could have been collected is doubtful. In the second place such a recasting of our classification was, in itself, inadvisable, and would seriously interfere with comparisons between the Occupational Statistics of 1901 and those of previous Census years.

In order, however, to make the figures respecting Dealers easily accessible, we have collected them from the various Sub-orders to which they belong, and arranged them in the following Table. We cannot claim for them a high degree of accuracy; for we are of opinion that many persons whose occupation it was to sell bread, shoes, clothes, &c., described themselves as Makers of those articles, and have been classified accordingly. It will, of course, be understood that the Table includes Assistants as well as Dealers themselves: —

Dealers. Persons. Males. Females.
In Food, Tobacco, Drink      
Milksellers, Dairymen 40,901 35,338 5,563
Cheesemongers, Buttermen, Provision Dealers 20,882 16,510 4,372
Butchers, Meat Salesmen 109,015 105,165 3,850
Fishmongers, Poulterers, Game Dealers 32,267 28,746 3,521
Corn, Flour, Seed—Merchants, Dealers 16,457 15,486 971
Bakers, Confectioners, (Dealers) 72,197 30,402 41,795
Grocers; Tea, Coffee, Chocolate—Dealers 193,569 151,184 42,385
Greengrocers, Fruiterers 52,627 40,700 11,927
Other Dealers in Food 3,884 3,618 266
Tobacconists 16,870 10,200 6,670
Coffee House, Eating House—Keepers 19,113 11,870 7,243
Wine and Spirit Merchants, Agents 8,820 8,396 424
Inn, Hotel—Keepers; Publicans, Beersellers, Cider Dealers 99,915 76,210 23,705
Barmen 56,332 28,625 27,707
Others in Inn, Hotel, Eating House—Service 39,955 18,849 21,106
In Textile Fabrics and Dress      
Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers 135,657 67,220 68,437
Other Dealers in Textile Fabrics 25,072 23,019 2,053
Hat, Bonnet, Straw Plait, &c., Dealers 5,751 3,815 1,936
Clothiers, Outfitters (Dealers) 22,107 17,701 4,406
Hosiers, Haberdashers 8,627 6,786 1,841
Boot, Shoe, Slipper, Pattern, Clog — Dealers 21,886 14,223 7,663
Other Dealers in Dress 5,429 2,015 3,414
Other Dealers      
Coal, Coke — Merchants, Dealers 24,653 23,613 1,040
Dealers in Stone, Slate, &c. 2,460 2,379 81
Ironmongers; Hardware—Dealers, Merchants 28,206 26,096 2,110
Other Dealers in Metals, Machines, &c. 6,264 5,189 1,075
Dealers in Precious Metals, Jewrllert, and Watches 4,763 3,855 908
Dealers in Instruments, Toys, &c. 4,724 2,881 1,843
Dealers in Works of Art 2,633 2,169 464
Furniture &c. Dealers 19,766 17,543 2,223
Timber, Wood, Cork, Bark — Merchants, Dealers 8,663 8,418 245
Brick, Cement, Pottery, Glass Dealers 9,369 6,147 3,222
Chemists, Druggists 28,448 25,343 3,105
Oil and Colourmen 8,699 8,089 610
Other Dealers in Oil, Grease, Soap, Resin, &c. 2,858 2,438 420
Dealers in Skins, Leather, Hair and Feathers 5,861 5,367 494
Stationers, Law Stationers 22,335 12,652 9,683
Publishers, Booksellers 14,788 12,235 2,553
Newspaper Agents, News Room Keepers 17,074 13,356 3,718
Merchants (commodity undefined) 5,151 5,133 18
Salesmen, Buyers (not otherwise described) 2,462 1,913 549
General shopkeepers, Dealers 51,576 23,539 28,037
Pawnbrokers 12,530 10,769 1,761
Costermongers, Hawkers, Street Sellers 61,339 46,941 14,398
Cattle, Sheep, Pig — Dealers, Salesmen 5,361 5,342 19
Other Dealers in Sundry Industries 1,184 1,116 68
Total 1,358,500 988,601 369,899

Examination of the headings in this Table will show that the vast majority of the persons represented were Shopkeepers or Shop Assistants. A few of the headings are exceptions to this general rule; for example, Corn Merchants, Coal Merchants, Dealers in Stone, Slate, &c. Comparing the general totals with the total numbers of occupied persons of both sexes, it is found that 9.7 per cent. of all occupied males, and 8.9 per cent. of all occupied females in 1901 were either Shopkeepers or Dealers, or their Assistants; and as already seen these persons were mainly employed in Shops.

If to the Dealers specified in the table, the Commercial Travellers, Agents, Clerks, and others in the Fifth Order be added, we shall have a grand total of 1,941,516 persons, viz.:— 1,512,240 males and 429,276 females, who may be considered as engaged in commercial pursuits.


The Sixth Order, comprising persons engaged in the Conveyance of Men, Goods, and Messages, numbered 1,267,825 of whom only 18,825 were females. The order may be conveniently divided into four sections, according as the workers are engaged on or in (a) Railways, (b) Roads, (c) Seas, Rivers, Canals, Docks and Harbours, or (d) Storage, Porterage, and Conveyance of Messages.

On Railways

The persons returned as employed on Railways were as follows:—

Railway Officials or Clerks 68,541
Railway Engine Drivers, Stokers 66,135
Railway Guards 20,828
Signalmen 24,996
Pointsmen, Level Crossing Men 14,219
Platelayers, Grangers, Packers 46,860
Railway Labourers (not Railway Contractors'Labourers) 29,562
Railway Porters and Servants 82,211
Total 353,352

The total of Workers on Railways in the preceding paragraph cannot be compared with the totals at previous Censuses unless we exclude Platelayers, Gangers, Packers and Railway Labourers, these workers having been previously included with Navvies in another Order. This adjustment has been made in the following table:—

Census Year. On Railways,
excluding Plate-
layers, Railway
Labourers, &c.
Increase per cent.
since previous
1851* 25,236
1861* 53,542 112.2
1871* 84,900 58.6
1881 139,408 64.2
1891 186,774 34.0
1901 276,930 48.3
* The figures for 1851, 1861, and 1871 include the "Retired."

The figures include small numbers of females, amounting to 849 in 1891 and 1,441 in 1901. Whilst between 1891 and 1901 there was an increase of 48.3 per cent. in the number of persons employed by the several companies, there was an increase of eight per cent. only in the length of line open.

On Roads

The number of persons engaged in Road traffic, including Domestic Coachmen and Grooms from Order IV., Sub-order 2, was returned as 507,006 against 366,605 in 1891, equivalent to an increase of 38.3 per cent. during the last decennium. These totals include females, who appear to have declined from 1,590 to 1,186 during the decennial period; but this decline is mainly due to a more rigid classification. The numbers of Males are made up as follows:—

Occupations on Roads. 1891. 1901. Increase (+)
Decrease (-)
per cent.
Livery Stable Keepers; Coach, Cab, Proprietors 11,027 12,479   13.2
Coachmen, Grooms, Cabmen } 176,259{ 188,820 } 13.9
Omnibus Service 11,974
Carmen, Carriers, Carters, Waggoners (not Farm) 169,283 272,300   60.9
Tramway Service 6,871 18,172   164.5
Motor Car Drivers   623    
Others, comprising Turnpike Gate Keepers, Wheel Chair Proprietors, Attendants, &c. 1,575 1,452   -7.8
Total 365,015 505,820   38.6

There has been an enormous increase of late years in the development of the Tramway service. In 1871, the number of persons thus employed was only 63; at the next Census it was 2,650; in 1891 it was 6,906, including 35 females; whilst at the last Census there were 18,172 males and 72 females. In connection with this increase in the number of persons employed, it should be mentioned that the length of line has increased within the last intercensal period by 35 per cent., and the number of passengers conveyed by 108 per cent. The increase in the aggregate number of male Carmen, Carriers, Carters, and Waggoners (not farm) is also remarkable. For whilst in the interval between 1881 and 1891 the increase had been 35.8 per cent., during the last intercensal period it was as much as 60.9 per cent. It is possible, however, that these numbers are to a small extent affected by differences in the classification of such occupations as were indefinitely returned in the agricultural districts at the several Censuses.

On Seas, Rivers, and Canals; and in Docks, Harbours, and Lighthouses

The number of persons enumerated as engaged in Sea, River, and Canal Transport Service was 132,271, while 100,149 were employed in Docks, Harbours, &c., making a total of 232,420, against 208,443 in 1891, there being an increase of 11.5 per cent. The subjoined Table shows the changes that have taken place since 1891 in the numbers of persons following the occupations specified; but it is probable that the increase shown in the Dock and Wharf Labourers is partly due to more definite returns on this occasion.

Occupations. 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or
Decrease (-)
per cent.
Merchant Seamen; Pilots; Boatmen on Seas 107,834 97,881 -9.2
Bargemen, Lightermen, Watermen 31,496 30,180 -4.2
Navigation Service (on Shore) 5,227 4,210 -19.5
On Seas, Rivers, and Canals 144,557 132,271 -8.4
Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse—Officials and Servants 8,890 11,517 29.6
Dock, Wharf—Labourers 54,996 88,632 61.2
In Docks, Harbours, &c. 63,886 100,149 56.8
Total 208,443 232,420 11.5

The number of Merchant Seamen enumerated in England and Wales in 1901 was 97,881, against 107,834 at the previous Census, showing a decrease of 9.2 per cent. If, however, European Foreigners be excluded from the figures, and English Seamen who were abroad on British vessels at the time of the Census be added, the number in 1901 will be raised to 145,502, against 160,216 in 1891, the decrease becoming 9.2 per cent. This falling off is no doubt due to the increased employment of foreigners on British vessels, to an apparent disinclination on the part of English youths to enter into such employment, and to the substitution of steam for sailing vessels. Tables 52 and 53 in Appendix A., derived from Returns furnished by the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen, show the Seamen of all Nationalities on Sea-going Trading or Fishing Vessels required to be registered under the Merchant Shipping Acts, and by comparing these with similar Tables published in the General Report on the Census of 1891, it may be seen that, while the total increased from 188,391 to 206,138, or 9.4 per cent., the number of persons of English birth fell 4.1 per cent., persons of Scotch birth 5.9 per cent. and of Irish birth 7.3 per cent.; while the number of Lascars increased by 57.6 per cent. and the number of other Foreigners by 42.2 per cent. From Table 53 it will further be noticed that the numbers of English youths aged under 20 declined from 12,156 to 10,595, or 12.8 per cent. The Statistical Abstract shows that the tonnage of British Shipping increased from 8,164,541 in 1891 to 9,524,496 in 1901, or 16.7 per cent.; the tonnage of sailing vessels having declined 35.4 per cent., while that of steam vessels had increased 44.5 per cent.

In Storage, Porterage, Messages

The persons engaged in connection with Storage, Porterage, and the Conveyance of Messages numbered 250,402, as against 240,030 in 1891; little value, however, can be attached to the figures, as a whole, for purposes of comparison. Warehousemen, including Meters and Weighers, declined from 27,504 to 15,973, probably for no other reason than that they described themselves more precisely in 1901 than formerly and were consequently referred to their particular industries. Coal—Heavers, Porters, and Labourers show an increase from 18,482 to 26,123, or 41.3 per cent. while Messengers, Porters, and Watchmen (not Railway or Government) advanced 3.6 per cent., from 179,089 to 185,487, including 180,496 males, of whom 71.4 per cent. had not completed their twentieth year. It is worthy of note that while, owing to the restriction of child labour, the total number of boys under 15 years returned at the recent Census as employed showed a decrease of 12.9 per cent. on the numbers enumerated in 1891, the number of messenger boys at the same ages declined by only 5.1 per cent.

In the last intercensal period the number of persons returned as engaged in the Telegraph and Telephone Services rose from 14,955 to 22,819, or by 52.6 per cent. These workers, however, are so closely connected with the government postal service that it is difficult to determine exactly their relative increase in numbers.


According to the returns for the Seventh Order there were employed in Agriculture —on Farms, Woods, or Gardens — 1,128,604 persons, all but 57,564 of whom were males. Of the entire Agricultural community as thus described, 81.9 per cent. were enumerated in rural districts. In the districts under urban administration, Agriculture gave employment to only 2.1 per cent. of the total males over 10 years of age, whilst in rural districts the proper Lion was 30.6 per cent.

Table 29 in Appendix A shows the proportions per 10,000 males, over 10 years of age, engaged in agricultural pursuits in each of the Administrative Counties. Excluding London, it appears that in the following 10 Administrative Counties, the proportion of those engaged in agriculture was lower than 10 per cent. of the total males aged 10 years and upwards:—Durham and Glamorgan 3.5 per cent., Middlesex 4.3, Lancaster 6.0, Stafford 6.5, the West Riding of York 7.3, Monmouth 8.0, Derby 8.7, Northumberland 8.9, and Surrey 9.6. In the following 18 counties the proportion was higher than 25 per cent.:—Westmorland 25.5, Cambridge 29.7, Oxford and Rutland 30.0, East Suffolk and Anglesey 31.8, West Suffolk 33.1, Lincoln—parts of Kesteven, and Cardigan 34.5, Hereford 34.6, Huntingdon 36.8, Lincoln—parts of Lindsey 37.0, East Riding of York 37.1, Norfolk 39.3, Montgomery 40.1, Radnor 41.1 Isle of Ely 42.6, and Lincoln—parts of Holland 43.0. But not only did the proportions in the several Administrative Counties vary; the proportions in the rural districts of these Counties also varied widely. In the following Table the Counties are arranged in order according to the proportion per cent. of males aged 10 years and upwards who were returned as engaged in Agriculture in their rural portions: —

Isle of Ely 61.0 Oxfordshire 39.3 Cornwall 29.3
Lincolnshire—Parts of Holland 59.4 Merionethshire 38.1 Nottinghamshire 28.5
Montgomeryshire 53.8 Westmorland 38.1 Berkshire 27.8
Lincolnshire—Parts of Lindsey 53.2 Shropshire 37.4 Worcestershire 26.5
Yorkshire—East Riding 51.5 Sussex—West 36.8 Warwickshire 26.1
Lincolnshire—Part of Kesteven 49.9 Wiltshire 36.3 Lancashire 26.0
Radnorshire 48.8 Essex 35.9 Carnarvonshire 24.7
Suffolk—West 48.4 Sussex—East 34.8 Gloucestershire 24.2
Herefordshire 47.5 Cumberland 34.1 Denbighshire 24.0
Cambridgeshire 45.9 Monmouthshire 32.2 Isle of Wight 23.9
Norfolk 45.8 Somersetshire 31.8 Leicestershire 23.5
Suffolk—East 45.3 Cheshire 31.5 Northumberland 23.3
Cardiganshire 44.6 Kent 31.5 Flintshire 21.1
Anglesey 43.9 Brecknockshire 30.8 Staffordshire 20.2
Huntingdonshire 42.7 Carmarthenshire 30.7 Yorkshire—West Riding 20.2
Yorkshire—North Riding 41.4 Northamptonshire 30.7 Middlesex 17.9
Bedfordshire 41.3 Hertfordshire 30.6 Surrey 17.1
Devonshire 40.7 Buckinghamshire 30.0 Derbyshire 14.0
Soke of Peterborough 40.5 Rutlandshire 30.0 Glamorganshire 10.0
Dorsetshire 40.3 Southampton 29.4 Durham 7.1
Pembrokeshire 39.6        

It will be interesting to compare the numbers engaged in agriculture at each of the last six Censuses. In the following Table these numbers for the earlier Censuses have, as far as possible, been rendered comparable with those for the later ones; but they may, nevertheless, still be affected by changes in classification, and by the fact that Carters, Waggoners, and Labourers have probably returned themselves differently or have been classified differently at successive Censuses. Domestic Gardeners who, at the previous Census, had been included with all other Gardeners, are here likewise so included. Farmers' sons under 15 years of age must, however, be excluded, since they were not generally classed as occupied at Censuses prior to 1901, even though returned as assisting in the work of the farm. The female relatives of farmers returned as assisting in farm work, who were not completely shown at the recent Census, and were not shown at all in 1891, must likewise be omitted. Farmers' wives also assist in the work of the farms, but their numbers have not been ascertained.

Census Year. Males Engaged
per cent. of Total
Males aged
10 years and
Females Engaged
per cent. of Total
Females aged
10 years and
1851* 1,544,087 23.5 168,652 2.4
1861* 1,539,965 21.2 115,213 1.5
1871* 1,371,304 16.8 85,667 1.0
1881 1,288,173 13.8 64,216 0.6
1891 1,233,936 11.6 51,045 0.4
1901 1,153,185 9.5 38,982 0.3
* The figures for 1851, 1861, and 1871 include the "Retired."

The above Summary shows that the numbers of both sexes engaged in Agricultural pursuits have declined continuously throughout the last half century. During the last 10 years the male have decreased from 1,233,936 to 1,153,185, or 6.5 per cent., following on a decrease of 4.2 per cent between 1881 and 1891; and the females have declined from 51,045 to 38,982 or 23.6 per cent., following on a decrease of 20.5 per cent in the proceeding intercensal period. This decline in the past 10 years, as shown by the figures below, extracted from the returns of the Board of Agriculture.

England and Wales. Acres in 1891. Acres in 1901. Increase (+)
or Decrease (.)
per cent.
Corn Crops 6,632,131 5,886,052 -11.2
Green Crops 2,652,635 2,511,744 -5.3
Clover and Grasses under Rotation 3,086,765 3,262,926 5.7
Flax, Hops, Small Fruit 112,013 120,683 7.7
Bare Fallow 420,141 336,884 -19.8
Total Arable Land 12,903,685 12,118,289 -6.1
Permenant Pasture 15,097,549 15,399,025 2.0
Total Arable and Pasture Land* 28,001,234 27,517,314 -1.7
Mountain and Heath Lands used for Grazing 2,815,063? 3,556,636 26.3
Total Area in use for Agriculture and Grazing 30,816,297 31,073,950 0.8
* The area returned as under Orchards was 208,069 acres in 1891, and 232,347 acres in 1901. This is included among the several headings of which the total Arable and Pasture Land is made up.
? This figure refers to the year 1892, when Returns of Mountain and Heath Lands used for Grazing were first collected.

The decline in the proportion of males engaged in Agriculture has been general throughout England and Wales. This is shown in the following Table, which gives the proportions per cent. of males over 10 years of age engaged in Agriculture in 1881, 1891 and 1901, in every Registration County excepting London. For reasons stated above, Farmers' sons under 15 years of age have been excluded from the figures for 1901.

County. Of the Male population above
10 years of age the proportion
per cent. engaged in
1881. 1891. 1901.
ENGLAND AND WALES 13.8 11.6 9.5
Bedfordshire 34.5 29.6 22.6
Berkshire 28.4 24.2 20.1
Buckinghamshire 31.9 28.8 22.9
Cambridgeshire 39.6 38.7 33.8
Cheshire 13.9 12.0 10.7
Cornwall 24.6 23.1 21.1
Cumberland 18.8 17.0 15.8
Derbyshire 11.8 9.8 8.1
Devonshire 22.5 19.6 16.9
Dorsetshire 29.4 27.4 23.1
Durham 4.4 3.6 3.0
Essex 23.7 16.3 10.1
Gloucestershire* 16.0 13.6 11.5
Herefordshire 38.4 36.2 35.7
Hertfordshire 30.9 28.0 22.3
Huntingdonshire 44.8 45.3 41.8
Kent 21.1 18.2 14.0
Lancashire 4.6 3.7 3.2
Leicestershire 16.5 13.0 9.8
Lincolnshire 34.9 33.6 29.0
Middlesex 10.9 7.9 5.8
Monmouthshire 11.0 8.7 7.4
Norfolk 32.9 31.7 27.6
Northamptonshire 24.5 19.8 14.8
Northumberland 10.3 8.0 6.2
Nottinghamshire 13.3 11.2 8.6
Oxfordshire 34.0 30.0 25.3
Rutlandshire 41.0 35.2 32.4
Shropshire 28.3 27.9 25.8
Somersetshire* 24.6 21.1 18.0
Southampton 17.9 14.9 11.8
Staffordshire 7.5 6.4 5.4
Suffolk 35.8 34.4 29.3
Surrey 15.5 13.1 10.5
Sussex 23.6 21.0 17.5
Warwickshire 9.8 8.0 6.4
Westmorland 30.8 27.5 26.9
Wiltshire 32.5 28.7 23.4
Worcestershire 15.9 13.9 11.5
Yorkshire 10.3 8.4 7.1
    East Riding 17.4 14.6 12.2
    North Riding 21.2 18.4 17.0
    West Riding 7.3 5.9 4.9
Anglesey 33.0 35.4 32.8
Brecknockshire 30.4 29.5 27.5
Cardinganshire 37.0 38.2 36.5
Carmarthenshire 23.9 21.1 18.5
Carnarvonshire 20.2 20.3 17.6
Denbighshire 22.8 21.0 17.8
Flintshire 13.5 13.6 13.7
Glamorganshire 5.2 3.6 2.9
Merionethshire 26.8 27.7 25.2
Montgomeryshire 37.5 40.5 39.9
Pembrokeshire 25.6 26.0 23.8
Radnorshire 47.6 48.9 34.7
* The 1901 figures for Gloucestershire and Somersetshire have been adjusted to allow for an interchange of area.

The Table shows that the proportion decreased in each intercensal period in all hut two of the smallest English counties and eight of the Welsh counties; and further that, of these exceptions, the only counties in which the proportion for 1901 was not lower than that for each of the preceding Censuses were Flintshire and Montgomeryshire. In 1881 there were 34 counties in which the proportion was above 20 per cent., and in 18 of these it exceeded 30 per cent.; in 1901 there were only 24 counties which the proportion was above 20 per cent and only 8 in which it exceeded 30 per cent.

On reference to Table 33 in Appendix A., it will be seen that the classification of 1901 under the separate headings of the Agricultural Order differs in many respects from that of 1891. In making the alterations we have followed as closely as possible the suggestions of the Board of Agriculture, who issued a memorandum to Agriculturists, urging them

"in view of the importance of all questions relating to the number and distribution of the agricultural population, to render their best assistance to ensure that the particulars entered on the Census Schedules by farmers and farm labourers are precise and specific, and capable of accurate arrangement in the groups to which they respectively belong."

The alterations in classification and the efforts made to secure accuracy have effected a considerable improvement in the returns, but the value of the figures for purposes of comparison has necessarily thereby been impaired.

Farmers and Graziers

The number of persons returned in 1891 as Farmers or Graziers was 223,610 (201,918 males and 21,692 females), or 333 less than the number in 1881. At the recent Census the number so classified was 224,299, of whom 202,751 were males and 21,548 females, the majority of the latter probably being widows carrying on the farms formerly held by their husbands. The figures for the two Censuses are not, however, precisely comparable, since those for 1901 include Poultry Farmers, &c., who were formerly classed under other headings. Probably, if the number of these in 1891 could be added to the figures for that Census, the heading would show a decrease in 1901. Notwithstanding the extension of the heading, male Farmers and Graziers have declined numerically during the last ten years in each of the following English Registration Counties:—Berkshire, Bedfordshire, Norfolk, Wiltshire, Somersetshire, Warwickshire, Rutlandshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Lancashire, the West Hiding of Yorkshire, Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Monmouthshire, and in all the Welsh Counties, excepting Pembrokeshire, Brecknockshire, and Montgomeryshire.

The following Table give the total number classed as Farmers and Glazers at each Census since 1851. It should be noted that the numbers for 1871 and earlier Censuses include the "Retired" and are not comparable with those for 1881 and later Censuses, from which the Retired are excluded; in 1901 there were enumerated 15,734 male and 2,114 female retired Farmers and Graziers:—

Census Year. Persons. Males. Females.
1851 249,431 226,515 22,916
1861 249,735 226,957 22,778
1871 249,907 225,569 24,338
1881 223,943 203,329 20,614
1891 223,610 201,918 21,692
1901 224,299 202,751 21,548

These figures would indicate that the number of holders of farms has not materially declined during the half century, but such cannot be said with regard to the workers on the farms, as we proceed to show.

Workers on Farms

The workers on farms returned in 1901 are as follows:—

Occupations. Males. Females.
Farmers', Graziers—Sons, Daughters, and other Relatives assisting in farm work 89,165 18,618
Farm—Bailiffs, Formen 22,623 39
Shepherds 25,354 12
Agricultural Labourers, Farm Servants—    
    In charge of cattle 81,302 3,797
    In charge of horses 154,377 5
    Not otherwise distinguished 348,072 8,149
Total 720,893 30,620

The above figures compared with those for 1891 show, on the one hand, a large decline in the number of agricultural labourers and farm servants, and on the other hand, a considerable increase among farmers' male relatives, farm bailiffs, and shepherds. We are of opinion, however, that the increases are mainly attributable to greater precision in the returns for 1901, persons who would previously have been returned as Farm Servants having now been returned as Farm Foremen and Shepherds.

As illustrating this greater precision we may mention that in 1891 an attempt was made to classify Agricultural Carters, Teamsters, and others in charge of horses separately from other Agricultural Labourers., The result, however, was unsatisfactory, for only 3.4 per cent. of the total could in this way be separately distinguished. At the recent Census, Agricultural Labourers were requested to specify on the Schedules the particular work on which they were usually engaged; the result being that 25.9 per cent. returned themselves as in charge of horses. For reasons such as these it is obviously futile to compare the numbers under separate headings with those under similar headings at previous Censuses. The total numbers of workers on farms may, however, be fairly compared after excluding farmers' sons &c. under 15 years of age, and female relatives of farmers, for reasons stated on a previous page. "With this necessary modification, the aggregates of such workers at the last six Censuses were as shown in the following Table:—

Census Year. Males. Females.
1851 1,232,576 143,475
1861 1,206,280 90,525
1871 1,014,428 58,656
1881 924,871 40,346
1891 841,884 24,150
1901 715,138 12,002

These figures illustrate clearly the rapidity with which, during the last half century, agricultural labour has declined. In 1851, in every 100 males over 10 years of age, 19 were workers on farms, whilst in 1901 the proportion was only 6 in 100. In the course of 50 years, the number thus engaged has declined 42.0 per cent. Between 1881 and 1891 the decline was 9.0 per cent., and between 1891 and 1901 it was 10.1 per cent. In all the English and Welsh counties more or less decline has taken place, but it is a striking fact that, with the exception of Cornwall and Dorset, the decline in all the counties south of a line drawn from the Wash to the Severn has exceeded 15 per cent.

Even more remarkable has been the reduction of female agricultural labour, the numbers having fallen from 143,475 to 12,002, or by 91.6 per cent. during the last half century. The highest rate of decline occurred during the last decennium, when it was equal to 50.3 per cent., as compared with 40.1 per cent. in the previous decennial period.

Agricultural Machine Proprietors, Attendants

The decrease in the number of agricultural labourers and farm servants has undoubtedly been, partially compensated by the more general adoption of machinery by the farmers themselves, and in addition to this there is a class of Agricultural Machine Proprietors and Attendants whose number, although small, has increased during the last decennium by 40.0 per cent.—namely from 4,675 to 6,545. Of these, 694 were enumerated in Lincolnshire, 469 in Suffolk, 449 in Essex, 409 in Norfolk, and 317 in Cambridgeshire— a total of 2,338 in this group of eastern counties, against a total of only 937 in the northern counties, down to and including those of York, Lancaster, and Chester, and in the entire principality of Wales.

Gardeners, Nurserymen, Seedsmen, Florists

In contrast with the decrease in the number of workers on farms is the considerable increase in the group consisting of Nurserymen, Seedsmen, Florists, and Gardeners (with whom for comparative purposes 87,936 Domestic Gardeners must be included). In the aggregate, this group numbered 216,165, including 5,140 females, as compared with 179,336, including 5,046 females, in 1891, the increase being 20.5 per cent.


The number of Woodmen enumerated was 12,035, having increased since the Woodmen, preceding decennium by 27.4 per cent. In connection with these figures it may be stated that the area of woods and plantations increased from 1,788,816 acres in 1891 to 1,847,351 acres in 1895, which is the latest year for which the acreage has been ascertained. The average annual rate of growth during the intervening four years is equivalent to an increase of 8.4 per cent. in a decennium.


The persons returned under the Eighth Order as engaged in Fishing numbered 23,891, as compared with 25,225 in 1891, there being thus an apparent decline of 5.3 per cent. The figures are, however, not certainly comparable, for it is impossible by means of an ordinary Census to be sure that all fishermen are included in the schedules, an unknown number being absent from home for many days together in pursuit of their avocation According to the estimate of the Board of Trade, based on the number and capacity of the registered fishing boats, the number of fishermen regularly employed in 1891 was 33,044, in addition to whom there were 9,011 employed intermittently. In 1901 the corresponding estimates were 31,583 and 7,983, representing a decline equal to 4.4 and 11.4 per cent. respectively.


In the Ninth Order are included persons working in and about, and dealing in the products of, Mines and Quarries. They numbered 805,185 in all, of whom 800,179 were males; but, if from the total be deducted the 25,992 males and 1,121 females returned as Dealers, it will be seen that there were 774,187 male and only 3,885 female workers in connection with Mines and Quarries.


There were returned as Miners (exclusive of 7,469 Owners, Agents, Managers, and "Others in Mine Service "), 672,195 males, against 550,925 in 1891, showing an increase of 22.0 per cent., which is almost entirely attributable to the coal mining industry. The number of females returned under corresponding headings, which had declined in the 10 years 1881-91 by 18.3 per cent. from 5,745 to 4,692, further declined by 34.7 per cent. to 3,065 in the last intercensal period. These females were principally engaged in Coal or in Tin Mining.

The following Table shows the number of males classified as Miners at successive Censuses from 1851 onwards, together with the percentages of increase or decrease between 1881 and 1891 and between 1891 and 1901.

Miners in 1851* 1861* 1871* 1881. 1891. 1901. Increase (+)
Decrease (-)
per cent.
1881-1891. 1891-1901.
Coal 183,389 246,613 268,091 378,664 513,843 640,989 35.7 24.7
Ironstone 19,380 20,626 20,931 25,879 18,158 17,008 -29.8 -6.3
Tin 12,911 14,314 10,617 10,499 9,670 6,577 -7.9 -32.0
Lead 20,030 18,552 14,563 11,022 5,723 4,375 -48.1 -23.6
Copper 18,449 17,727 3,063 3,800 1,130 789 -70.3 -30.2
Other or Undefined Minerals ? 8,039 39,130 2,061 2,401 2,457
Total 254,159 325,871 356,395 431,925 550,925 672,195 27.6 22.0
* In comparing the figures under the several headings regard must be paid to the fluctuating numbers shown under "Other or Undefined Minerals"; and to the fact that the figures for 1851, 1861, and 1871 include the "Retired."

Coal and Shale Miners

At the recent Census, 640,989 males were enumerated as engaged in the Coal Mining Industry, of whom 588,444 were returned as working in, and 52.545 as working about, the mines. The number now recorded is equal to 5.28 per cent. of the entire male population over 10 years of age, the proportion in 1891 having been equal to 4.85 per cent. In the decennium 1881 to 1891 the increase in the number of coal miners was much greater than that in the output, for while the miners increased by 35.7 per cent., the quantity of coal produced in England and Wales rose by 20.0 per cent. only. A similar remark applies to the present case; for whilst during the 10 years ended in 1901 the number of male colliers showed an increase of 24.7 per cent., the output of coal in 1901 as compared with 1891 increased by 16.4 per cent. only. In connection with the output of coal, it may be noted that the export of coal amounted to 25 millions of tons in 1891 and to 35 millions of tons in 1901. Between 1891 and 1901 the number of females employed in connection with coal mining fell from 3,267 to 2,6.5, or 18.4 per cent., against an increase of 5.4 per cent. in the previous decennium.

Coal mining is carried on in a large number of counties, and these generally show increasing numbers of men employed, as may be seen from the following Table, which gives the figures for the last three Censuses, together with the relative increase or decrease in the two intercensal periods.

Registration County. 1881. 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or Decrease (—)
per cent.
1881-1891 1891-1901
Somersetshire* 5,070 5,926 5,796 16.9 -2.2
Gloucestershire* 3,901 4,394 4,202 12.6 -4.4
Shropshire 4,032 3,759 4,260 -6.8 13.3
Staffordshire 37,200 45,376 54,296 22.0 19.7
Worcestershire 1,977 2,242 2,516 13.4 12.2
Warwickshire 2,974 4,205 6,987 41.4 66.2
Leicestershire 3,699 5,014 6,573 35.6 31.1
Nottinghamshire 18,918 29,820 42,102 57.6 41.2
Derbyshire 17,409 21,957 25,780 26.1 17.4
Cheshire 3,921 3,987 3,511 1.7 -11.9
Lancashire 59,557 77,509 87,391 30.1 12.7
Yorkshire—West Riding 55,680 75,958 94,110 36.4 23.9
Durham 65,398 80,595 98,876 23.2 22.7
Northumberland 20,734 27,155 35,937 31.0 32.3
Cumberland 5,278 7,199 7,748 36.4 7.6
Monmouthshire 14,656 24,341 34,519 66.1 41.8
Glamorganshire 44,435 76,948 104,643 73.2 36.0
Carmarthenshire 2,666 3,808 6,677 42.8 75.3
Brecknockshire 2,092 2,829 3,135 35.2 10.8
Flintshire 2,268 2,455 2,182 8.2 -11.1
Denbighshire 5,366 6,981 8,104 30.1 16.1
All Other Counties 1,433 1,385 1,644 -3.3 18.7
* The 1901 figures for Somersetshire and Gloucestershire have been adjusted to allow for an interchange of area.

Ironstone Miners

During the last intercensal period the male Miners of Iron Ore declined from 18,158 to 17,008 or in the proportion of 6.3 per cent., whereas in the previous intercensal period the decline had been as high as 29.8 per cent. This decline was accompanied by a falling off in the output, which decreased 18.6 per cent. as between 1881 and 1891, but only 4.1 per cent. as between 1891 and 1901.

The following Table shows the number of men enumerated as Ironstone Miners at each of the last three Censuses:—

Registration County. 1881. 1891. 1901.
Northamptonshire 1,437 1,053 1,411
Staffordshire 3,037 1,202 1,216
Lincolnshire 589 765 1,019
Lancashire 3,742 3,066 2,296
Yorkshire—North Riding 7,397 5,545 5,876
Cumberland 5,478 4,609 3,923
All Other Counties 4,199 1,918 1,267

Tin Miners

Next in numerical importance come the Tin Miners whose numbers have declined rapidly at each enumeration from 1861 onwards. But in no previous decennium had the relative decrease been so high as in the last intercensal period, when it amounted to 36.5 per cent., the number of males and females returned in 1901 being 6,958, against 10,949 in 1891; and whilst in 1891 as many as 1,279 or 1 in 9 of the persons engaged in tin mining were females, at the recent Census the number had fallen to 381, and the proportion to 1 in 18. Apart from the general decline in tin-mining, the decrease of 70.2 per cent. in the number of females can be accounted for by the substitution of automatic machinery and of power-driven stone crushers for manual labour, and by a disposition on the part of young girls to seek a higher class of employment. According to the "Statistical Abstract" of the Board of Trade the amount of White Tin produced from British ores declined, comparing 1901 with 1.891, by 51.2 per cent.; the output of metal appears, therefore, to have decreased even more rapidly than has the number of workers. Tin mining is confined to Cornwall and a small adjoining part of Devonshire.

Lead Miners

Ever since 1851 the successive Census returns have shown a decline in the number of Lead Miners, the rate of decrease reaching its maximum in the interval between 1881 and 1891, when it amounted to 48.1 per cent. In 1901 as compared with 1891 the decline in male miners was 23.6 per cent., and the decline in the output of ore approached 32 per cent. The local distribution of the lead miners was as shown in the following Table, from which it will be seen that the decline has been general since 1881, but that Flintshire and Denbighshire have during the last decennium partly regained the loss between 1881 and 1891:—

Registration County. 1881. 1891. 1901.
Derbyshire 871 396 283
Yorkshire—North Riding 746 269 54
Durham 1,448 894 394
Northumberland 644 384 253
Cumberland 645 517 417
Westmorland 164 151 105
Cardiganshire 1,678 766 547
Montgomeryshire 1,212 388 317
Flintshire 1,006 706 932
Denbighshire 1,072 645 679
All Other Counties 1,536 607 394

Copper Miners

Copper Mining is another industry which has greatly decayed, only 789 males being employed in 1901 as compared with 18,449 in 1851. Nearly all the men engaged in this industry in 1901 were enumerated in Cornwall, Devonshire, and Anglesey. Copper miners, whose numbers had fallen in the previous intercensal period by no less than 70.3 per cent., further declined in the interval between the last two Censuses by 30.2 per cent. The decline in output as between 1881 and 1891 was equal to 82.0 per cent., and as between the latter year and 1901 to 36.1 per cent.


Allied to the Miners are the Quarriers of Stone and Slate, working both above and below ground. The males engaged in Stone quarrying, cutting, dressing, &c., numbered 55,756, compared with 36,813 in 1891, which represents an increase of 51.5 per cent., largely due to the development of the Building Trade. It is remarkable that in the previous intercensal period these workers had increased by only about 5 per cent. The following Table shows the counties in which the industry is mainly carried on, and it will be seen that the increase during the last decennium has been general: —

Registration County. Males.
1881* 1891. 1901.
Wiltshire 959 742 1,199
Devonshire 637 608 1,224
Cornwall 371 727 2,032
Somersetshire? 1,126 1,106 2,285
Shropshire 524 881 1,102
Staffordshire 803 1,298 1,593
Leicestershire 1,707 1,965 3,019
Derbyshire 1,822 2,114 3,250
Lancashire 5,169 4,836 6,172
Yorkshire—West Riding 9,882 8,846 12,361
Durham 2,040 2,523 3,362
Northumberland 712 850 1,540
Glamorganshire 876 1,207 1,800
Carnarvonshire 1,252 1,196 2,695
All Other Counties 7,837 7,914 12,122
* Dealers were included in 1881.
? The figures for Somersetshire have been adjusted to allow for a change of area.

The number of Male Slate Quarriers and workers also shows a considerable advance, having increased by 16.7 per cent., from 13,763 to 16,064; of this latter number, 8,286 were enumerated in Carnarvonshire and 4,415 in Merionethshire, as compared with 7,661 and 3,959 respectively in 1891. These increases are the more remarkable as there had been a considerable decline in the previous decennial period.


The Tenth Order consists of Persons working and dealing in Metals, Machines, Implements, and Conveyances, and under it are included 1,237,196 persons, namely, 1,174,180 males and 63,016 females. The order admits of convenient division into three sections, comprising respectively the workers employed in—(a) manufacture of metals, machines, and implements, (b) construction of ships and boats, or (c) construction of vehicles of various kinds.

The workers in Metals, Machines, and Implements (excluding Lock and Key Makers and Makers of Gas Fittings, who owing to changes of classification, must be dealt with in Order XII.) numbered 934,379 males and 54,540 females, as against 737,832 males and 42,140 females in 1891; there was thus an increase of 26.8 per cent on the total, 26.6 per cent on the males and 29.4 per cent on the females. These figures, as a whole, are approximately comparable. It is unfortunate, however, that the comparison of the figures in respect of the component trades is greatly impaired in consequence of the interchanges which have taken place amongst the various headings. In the Census Report of 1881 it was stated that "it was quite impossible to separate the Tin-smelters from the Tin-plate workers, or these from the Tinmen or Tinkers; the Copper smelters from the Coppersmiths, and so on"; and in 1891 the same difficulties were found insuperable. As already stated on page 74, an attempt has on this occasion been made to separate the producers of metal from the other workers. It must, however, be recorded that the persistent efforts made, both before the Census was taken and subsequently by local inquiry, to ensure completeness and accuracy of returns have been only partially successful. Especially is this so with the Iron workers, no less a number than 19,128 having to be classified as "undefined or indeterminable," thus causing the definite headings of this great industry to be understated.

Iron and Steel

The subjoined Table may be accepted as fairly indicating the position of the Iron and Steel Trade in 1891 and in 1901:—

Occupations. 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or
Decrease (-) per cent
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Nail Manufacture 9,943 5,127 4,816   5,767 3,163 2,604   -42.0 -38.3 -45.9
Bolt, Nut, Rivet, Screw, Staple—Markers 10,052 6,793 3,259   12,181 7,727 4,454   21.2 13.7 36.7
Anchor, Chain—Manufacture 6,376 4,535 1,841   6,668 4,757 1,911   4.6 4.9 3.8
Pig Iron Manufacture (Blast Furnaces) } 358,654 351,351 7,303 { 12,745 12,742 3 } 11.6 10.5 64.7
Puddling Furnaces and Rolling Mills 42,424 42,422 2
Steel Smelting and Founding 30,738 30,738
Ironfounders 100,556 100,217 339
Stove, Grate, Range, Fire-iron—Makers 6,211 5,989 222
Bedstead Makes (Iron or Brass) 4,220 3,178 1,042
Iron Workers (undefined or indeterminable) 19,128 19,128
Blacksmiths, Strikers 137,068 136,752 316
Other Metal Workers* 47,050 36,946 10,104
Total 385,025 367,806 17,219   424,756 403,759 20,997   10.3 9.8 21.9
* It has been necessary to include this heading in the Table for purposes of comparison. The males were mainly Workers in Iron and Steel, but a considerable proportion of the females were Workers in Other Metals.

Owing to changes of classification the figures are not precisely comparable; but, after making due allowance for these changes, they show that the aggregate number of males employed in these trades has not increased so fast as has the general population, but that the comparately small number of females has increased much faster. The rates of increase for both sexes are greater than those recorded in the previous decennium. Nail Manufacture, which employed 16,965 males and 9,975 females in 1851, employed only 3,163 males and 2,604 females in 1901, and is localised in the Counties of Worcester and Stafford, from which 2,222 and 1,224 persons were respectively returned. This continuous decrease is attributable to the extensive adoption of machinery. The manufacture of bolts, &c. is mainly confined to the Counties of Stafford, with 4,190 persons thus employed, of Worcester, with 2,175, and of Warwick, with 1,769; while Anchor and Chain Manufacture is practically limited to Staffordshire, with 3,719 operatives, and to Worcestershire, with 1,973. Iron and Steel Manufacture, comprising workers at Blast Furnaces, Puddling Furnaces, Rolling Mills, and at Steel Foundries and Smelting Works, is of chief importance in Staffordshire, the West and North Ridings of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Worcestershire, and Glamorganshire.

Engineering and Machine Making

The numerical importance of this Sub-order will be gathered from the fact that no fewer than 629,026 persons were classed under its eleven headings. In consequence, however, of changes in classification (see Appendix A, Table 33) comparison must be limited to the six "Leadings in the following Table:—

Occupations. 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or
Decrease (-) per cent.
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Millwrights 6,113 6,112 1   5,288 5,285 3   -13.5 -13.5
Erectors, Fitters, Turners 87,510 87,510   159,175 159,173 2   81.9 81.9
Boiler Makers 36,726 36,726   46,436 46,432 4   26.4 26.4
Pattern Makers } 80,625 78,160 2,465 { 12,092 12,092 } 76.5 80.1 -38.6
Metal Machinists 29,088 28,877 211
Other or undefined Engine and Machine Makers 101,087 99,785 1,302
Total 210,974 208,508 2,466   353,166 351,644 1,522   67.4 68.6 -38.3

Some part of the increase shown by the principal occupations in this Table is undoubtedly due to greater precision in the Census returns (see the explanatory foot note to Order X. in Appendix A, Table 34).


The workers classed under the Sub-order "Tools" numbered 53,905 persons (42,892 Tools, males and 11,013 females), showing an increase of 4.4 per cent. over the number similarly classed in 1891. The actual increase was, however, somewhat greater than this, since the figures for 1891 include Dealers as well as Makers.

Occupations. * 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or Decrease (—) per cent
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Tool Makers 12,258 11,992 266 16,876 16,395 481 37.7 36.7 80.8
File Makers 9,249 7,603 1,646 8,168 6,450 1,718 -11.7 -15.2 4.4
Saw Makers 2,133 2,007 126 2,452 2,297 155 15.0 14.4 23.0
Cutlers and Scissors Makers 19,992 17,734 2,258 17,753 15,226 2,527 -11.2 -14.1 11.9
Needle, Pin—Makers 4,720 2,456 2,264 4,601 2,095 2,506 -2.5 -14.7 10.7
Steel Pen Makers 3,296 296 3,000 4,055 429 3,626 23.0 44.9 20.9
Total 51,648 42,088 9,560 53,905 42,892 11,013 4.4 1.9 15.2
* The figures for 1891 include Dealers.

Of the Tool makers, 4,412 were enumerated in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 4,721 in "Warwickshire, 2,573 in Staffordshire, 1,465 in Lancashire, 1,193 in Worcestershire, and 917 in London. File makers, to the number of 6,265, were enumerated in the West Riding of Yorkshire; the greater part of the remainder were in the counties of Lancaster and Stafford. From the West Riding were also returned 1,360 of the 3,452 Saw makers. Needles and Pins are manufactured chiefly in Warwickshire and in Worcestershire, the number of persons employed in this industry in these counties being respectively 2,663 and 1,256. The Steel Pen industry belongs principally to the County of Warwick, from which 3,648 persons were returned. The production of Scissors and other Cutlery, in which the numbers engaged declined 11.2 per cent. during the last decennium, is centred in the West Riding of Yorkshire; or, to speak more accurately, in Sheffield, in which city not fewer than 14,436 of the 17,753 cutlers returned in 1901 were enumerated. Some of the other industries named above are specially centred in certain towns, for example:—3,060 Tool Makers, 5,266 File Makers, and 1,173 Saw Makers were enumerated in Sheffield; 3,232 Tool Makers, 3,159 Steel Pen Makers, and 592 Needle and Pin Makers in Birmingham; and 1,655 Needle and Pin Makers in Redditch.


At the recent Census there were enumerated as engaged in the manufacture of Guns, Swords, and other arms 10,597 persons, showing an increase of 9.7 per cent. on the number so returned in 1891. This industry is of considerable importance in the Counties of Warwick, Middlesex, and London, which respectively contained 4,383, 2,244, and 1,437 Gunmakers.

Miscellaneous Metal Trades

The changes in the numbers employed in the remaining trades under the present Section "Metals, Machines, and Implements" may be seen by the following Table:—

Occupations. 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or
Decrease (—) per cent
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Tinplate Manufacture } 46,240 39,702 6,538 { 15,015 13,048 1,967 } -8.1 -11.5 12.3
Tinplate Goods Makers 27,476 22,100 5,376
Copper Manufacture } 8,538 8,486 52 { 4,446 4,437 9 } 23.3 23.5 ?
Coppersmiths 4,744 4,743 1
Copper Workers 1,341 1,297 44
Lead Manufacture } 2,431 2,209 222 { 1,378 1,363 15 } 21.1 21.3 18.9
Leaden Goods Makers 1,565 1,316 249
Zinc Manufacture } 3,548 3,377 171 { 668 667 1 } -40.3 -37.6 ?
Zinc Workers 1,449 1,441 8
Brass, Bronze—Manufacturers, Founders } 36,831 34,777 2,054 { 17,177 16,737 440 } 34.0 27.8 137.7
Brass Finishers 16,413 16,268 145
Brass, Bronze—Workers 15,748 11,450 4,298
Type—Cutters, Founders 1,369 1,314 55   1,470 1,287 183   7.4 -2.1 ?
Die, Seal, Coin, Medal—Makers 1,927 1,844 83   2,411 2,274 137   25.1 23.3 ?
Wire—Drawers, Makers, Workers, Weavers 11,175 10,196 979   15,433 13,631 1,802   38.1 33.7 84.1
Lamp, Lantern, Candlestick—Makers 3,825 3,111 714   3,231 2,244 987   -15.5 -27.9 38.2
White Metal and Electro-Plate Ware Manufacturers; Pewterers 6,779 4,976 1,803   16,530 11,378 5,152   143.8 128.7 185.7

It will be observed that, in the aggregate, the Makers of Tinplates and Tinplate Goods declined 8.1 per cent. as compared with an increase of 25.2 per cent. in the previous decennium. The Manufacture of Tinplate is practically limited to the Counties, of Glamorgan, Carmarthen, and Monmouth, where the Manufacture of Tinplate Goods is of no great importance. In these Counties the aggregate (almost exclusively composed of Makers of Tinplate) decreased from 22,057 to 15,228, or 31.0 per cent. In the remainder of England and Wales the aggregate (almost exclusively of Makers of Tinplate Goods) increased from 24,183 to 27,263, or 12.7 per cent. It appears probable, therefore, that between 1891 and 1901 the Manufacture of Tinplate seriously declined, whilst that of Tinplate Goods increased.

The total of manufacturers of, and workers in, Copper increased 23.3 per cent. The manufacture of this metal is chiefly carried on in the Counties of Glamorgan and Lancaster, in which 1,953 and 1,303 persons respectively were thus returned.

Manufacturers and workers of Lead increased 21.1 per cent., while those of Zinc declined 40.3 per cent. The manufacture of this latter metal is almost exclusively carried on in Glamorganshire, where 624 persona were so occupied.

It will further be observed that no less a number of persons than 49,338 were engaged in producing, founding, finishing, or otherwise working upon Brass. This aggregate is now 34.0 per cent. in excess of that in 1891. Warwickshire and Staffordshire together contained 40.1 percent, of the total males and 84.6 per cent. of the total females employed in this industry.

Wire makers and workers increased in the last decennium by 38.1 per cent., numbering 15,433 in 1901, of whom 4,176 were in Lancashire, 3,555 in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 2,072 in Warwickshire, and 1,554 in London.

Manufacturers of White Metal and Electro-Plate Ware, and Pewterers increased from 6,779 to 16,530, of whom 7,999 were resident in the West Riding of Yorkshire (including 6,934 in Sheffield), 3,228 in Warwickshire, and 1,241 in London.

Ships and Boats

The builders of Ships and Boats increased in the last intercensal period from 69,741 to 86,637, or at the rate of 24.2 per cent. That this increase has not been uniform throughout the country will readily be seen by the following Table, in which the principal counties are arranged in order round the coast:—

Registration County. 1891. 1901. Increase (+)
Decrease (—)
per cent.
Registration County. 1891. 1901. Increase (+)
Decrease (—)
per cent.
Northumberland 7,049 10,595 50.3 Kent 3,425 4,628 35.1
Durham 19,547 28,094 43.7 Hampshire 4,789 5,629 17.5
Yorkshire—North Riding 2,982 4,148 39.1 Devonshire 2,609 3,512 34.6
Yorkshire—East Riding 2,355 1,805 -23.4 Cornwall 1,055 867 -17.8
Lincolnshire 809 732 -9.5 Monmouthshire 614 431 -29.8
Norfolk 595 482 -19.0 Glamorganshire 1,787 1,995 11.6
Suffolk 394 524 33.0 Pembrokeshire 1,515 1,650 8.9
Essex 1,773 2,649 49.4 Cheshire 2,411 2,494 3.4
London 4,566 3,744 -18.0 Lancashire 7,658 8,607 12.4
        All Other Counties 3,808 4,051 6.4

Ship and Boat building employed more hands in 1901 than in 1891 by 44.8 per cent. in the district embracing the Tyne, Wear, and Tees; by 12.9 per cent. in the Thames district; and by 10.2 per cent. in the Lancashire and Cheshire district; whereas the numbers engaged in the East Riding and Lincolnshire district, which includes the Humber, fell 19.8 per cent.


The number of persons engaged in the construction of Vehicles in 1901 was 118,478; this exceeds by 37,019, or 45.4 per cent., the number of such persons, together with Dealers, in 1891. Included in this sub-order are the makers of "Cycles" and "Motors," who have increased in number from 11,524 to 31,466, or 173.0 per cent., the males having increased from 10,965 to 28,537 and the females from 559 to 2,929. The principal centre of this industry is Warwickshire which contributed 14,480 persons to the total; this county, although containing only 42.6 per cent. of the total male Cycle and Motor Makers, yet contained no less than 79.5 per cent. of the total females engaged in the industry. The towns showing the largest numbers of Cycle and Motor Makers were Birmingham with 6,145, Coventry with 5,974, London with 2,495, Aston Manor with 1,248, and Wolverhampton with 1,028.


In the Eleventh Order, 149,438 persons, of whom 18,707 were females, were engaged as workers or dealers in Precious Metals, Jewels, Watches, Instruments, and Games. Including persons connected with the Supply of Electricity, now part of Order XXI, 152,353 persons were thus employed at the last Census, or 57,146 more than in 1891, the increase being equal to 60.0 per cent. on the total, the males having advanced 60.4 per cent. and the females 57.3 per cent.

Watches, Clocks, Precious Metals, and Jewellery

The workers and dealers in Watches, Clocks, Precious Metals, and Jewellery numbered 59,566, of whom 9,403 were females, compared with 52,692 in 1891, when only 6,859 were females. There was thus an increase of 13.0 per cent. in the aggregate, the advance having been 37.1 per cent. among females as compared with 9.4 per cent. among males. We have classified persons returned as Dealers separately from those returned as Makers but the result has not been satisfactory. There is no doubt that many persons, notwithstanding the instructions on the Schedules, returned themselves as Watchmakers and Jewellers, although engaged almost exclusively in dealing.

In consequence of the modifications in classification it is uncertain what changes have taken place in the number of persons making, and dealing in, watches and clocks; and with respect to the Goldsmiths, Silversmiths, Jewellers, Lapidaries, etc., all that can. be stated is, that whilst in 1891 there were enumerated 23,348 males and 5,496 females, including Dealers , in 1901 there were 26,060 males and 6,749 females, exclusive of Dealers. It may be noted that of the number in 1901 as many as 9,197 males and 4,372 females were enumerated either in the City of Birmingham or in the adjoining Urban Districts of Aston Manor and Handsworth.

Instruments and Tackle for Sports and Games

The makers of Electrical Apparatus, and persons engaged in the generation and supply of Electricity, together totalled 52,433 as against 12,604 in 1891. The males numbered 49,916, more than four times as many as in 1891, when only 12,135 were so returned. In 1881 there had been only 2,496, and in 1671 only 408 males, so occupied. In 1901 these industries further gave employment to 2,517 females, as compared with 469 at the previous Census, these being almost entirely engaged in Electrical Apparatus making. Of the total in 1901, only 2,915 persons were returned as engaged in the supply of Electricity, but there is reason to believe that this is less than the true number, many drivers of generating engines having described themselves as Electrical Engineers, and having been accordingly classified as "Electrical Apparatus Makers."

Other workers and dealers in Instruments, in Tackle for Sports and in Games increased from 29,911 in 1891 to 40,354 in 1901. The following Table shows the numbers returned in 1891 and 1901 as engaged in the various occupations.

Occupations. 1891.* 1901.
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Scientific Instrument Makers; Opticians 4,842 4,492 350 5,954 5,420 534
Weighing and Measuring Apparatus 3,634 3,205 429 4,661 4,199 462
Surgical Instrument Makers? 2,036 1,516 520 4,489 3,267 1,222
Musical Instrument Makers 12,623 12,174 449 14,089 13,747 342
Fishing Tackle, Toy, Game Apparatus—Makers 6,776 3,944 2,832 6,437 4,026 2,411
Dealers in Instruments, Toys, &c.* ? ? ? 4,724 2,881 1,843
Aggregate 29,911 25,331 4,580 40,354 33,540 6,814
Increase per cent. 1891-1901 34.9 32.4 48.8
* In the figures for 1891, Dealers are included together with Makers under the several headings; in the figures for 1901 the Dealers corresponding to the five groups of Makers are collected under a single heading.
? Makers of Artificial Teeth and other Dental Apparatus were referred to this heading in 1901; but not in 1891.

It will be seen that the first four headings show an increase in 1901 notwithstanding the exclusion of Dealers; as a considerable proportion of these are Dealers in Toys, there was probably an increase under the fifth heading also.


In the Twelfth Order not fewer than 1,042,864 males, or 8.6 per cent. of the entire male population above the age of 10 years, were returned as engaged in Building and Works of Construction. Only 702 females were included in this Order, and these, for the most part, were described as "employers," and were probably engaged in carrying on the businesses of deceased husbands or fathers. In comparing the numbers under the different headings, we shall therefore refer to males alone.

House Building, &c.

The subjoined Table has been constructed to show the numbers of males returned as engaged in House Building and other allied occupations at the last three Censuses.

Occupations. 1881. 1891. 1901.
Builders } 30,564 37,621 { 40,187  
Builders Labourers 27,436  
Carpenters, Joiners 235,017 220,661   270,660  
Bricklayers } 125,055 130,380 { 115,995  
Bricklayers' Labourers 97,779  
Masons } 97,432 84,594 { 73,012  
Masons' Labourers 23,019  
Slaters, Tilers 7,469 6,789   9,796  
Plasterers } 32,977 29,225 { 31,301  
Plasterers' Labourers 6,853  
Paperhangers, Whitewashers 6,437  
Painters, Decorators, Glaziers 99,676 123,119   160,201  
Plumbers 37,160 46,647   64,924  
Gasfitters } 12,420 } 19,803   24,493 { 16,328
Gas Fitting Makers* 1,982
Lock, Key—Makers* } 7,342 4,927
Locksmiths, Bellhangers 1,256
Total 685,112 698,839   952,093  
* It has been necessary to add these headings (from Order X, Sub-order 7), in order to make the figures for 1901 comparable with those for 1881 and 1891.

From this, it will be seen that the males employed in these occupations amounted to 952,093, showing an increase of 36.2 per cent. on the number returned in 1891, which contrasts strongly with the increase of 2.0 per cent. only between 1881 and 1891. For comparative purposes, however, the figures are probably affected to an appreciable extent by want of uniformity in the method of filling up the schedules at successive Censuses, For example, on reference to Appendix A, Table 34, it will be found that under the head of "General Labourers" there were returned 556,876 males at the enumeration of 1881; at the succeeding Census, 594,128; and in 1901 only 409,773. Again, under the head of "Artizans, Mechanics, and Apprentices (undefined)," the number in 1881 was 32,602; in 1891 it was 52,266; and in 1901 only 17,330. There can be no doubt that some part of the increase in recent years among Builders and their Labourers, Bricklayers and their Labourers, and other occupations in the above Table is closely connected with the decrease under the vague headings just named, being due to greater precision in the statements made in the Schedules. Yet the other occupations— such as Carpenters and Painters—employing proportionately fewer labourers and being consequently less affected by the quality of the returns, also show material increases. It is quite apparent, therefore, that the Building Trade has grown at a rate far beyond that of the general population. In connection with this increase, it may be noted that the total number of inhabited and uninhabited houses, together with those in course of erection, was 15.5 per cent. greater at the Census of 1901 than at that of 1891.

Other Works of Construction, and Roads

The males engaged in Other Works of Construction, &c. (including Platelayers and Railway Labourers, now separately returned in order VI., sub-order 1), numbered 174,102 at the recent Census, against 98,805 so returned in 1891 and 77,912 in 1881. But, in this case also, the figures are affected for comparison by the more definite returns as to Labourers; and, although the real increase is almost certainly large, we cannot state it precisely. The following Table however, shows the numbers actually returned under the more important headings at the several Censuses:—

Occupations. 1881. 1891. 1901.
Paviours, Road Labourers 15,097 21,444 50,370
Navvies, Railway Contractors' Labourers } 58,847 72,606 118,067 { 41,645
Platelayers, Gangers, Packers 46,860
Railway Labourers (not Railway Contractors' Labourers) 29,562


In the Thirteenth Order the Wood Working and Furnishing Trades provided employment for 257,592 persons, the number having increased since 1891 by 27.6 per cent., as compared with 12.1 per cent. in the previous intercensal period.

Furniture, Fittings, and Decorations

The first sub-order, dealing with the manufacture or sale of Furniture, Fittings and Decorations, occupied 158,620 persons, or more by 26.8 per cent. than in 1891, the males numbering 138,582 and the females 20,038, and the respective increases being 28.2 and 18.1 per cent.

Cabinet Makers, Upholsterers, French Polishers, and Furniture, &c., Dealers make up the greater part of this sub-order, numbering 119,179 persons, or 30.4 per cent. in excess of the return for 1891, whilst in the previous decennium the advance had been 20.5 per cent. In order to compare the growth of the Cabinet Making and allied industries, it is necessary to go back to 1881, since in 1891 they were classed under a single heading. This comparison is given in the subjoined Table:—

Occupations. 1891. 1901. Increase per cent.
in 20 years.
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Cabinet Makers } 59,746 51,761 7,985 { 52,660 51,903 757 } 31.4 33.0 20.7
Upholsterers 25,821 16,944 8,877
French Polishers 10,112 8,083 2,029   20,932 16,607 4,325 107.0 105.5 113.2
Furniture, &c., Dealers 5,978 5,023 955   19,766 17,543 2,223 230.6 249.3 132.8

Willow, Cane, and Rush "Workers, and Basket Makers numbered 11,520 persons as against 12,329 in 1891, there being thus a decline of 6.6 per cent. compared with an increase of 6.8 per cent. in the previous decennium; the females, however, declined in both decennial periods, from 2,525 in 1881 to 2,469 in 1891, and 1,894 in 1901. It is interesting to note that, out of the 11,520 persons following the industry in 1901,1,120, or 9.7 per cent. were blind, the number of the blind so employed having increased from 974 during the ten years. Wood Carvers and Carvers and Gilders were 20.6 per cent. more numerous than in 1891, totalling 14,739 as compared with 12,223.

Wood and Bark

Workers and Dealers in Wood and Bark numbered 98,972, of whom 32,325 were Sawyers, 15,779 Coopers and Hoop—Makers, Benders, 11,223 Wooden Box or Packing Case Makers, and 10,208 Wood Turners; of the remainder, 20,774 were employed in timber yards or in minor industries connected with wood or bark, and 8,663 were Dealers. This sub-order as a whole, and most of the headings which are included in it, have been so far affected by changes of classification that comparable figures for 1891 cannot be obtained; the only important exception is the heading "Coopers; Hoop—Makers, Benders." which shows a decrease in the number employed of 8.3 per cent. in the decennium.


The Fourteenth Order comprises Brick, Cement, Pottery and Glass Makers and Dealers, the numbers of whom were 142,365 males and 33,148 females, or 175,513 persons in the aggregate. Of these, 166,144 (136,218 males and 29,926 females) were returned as Makers, showing an increase of 26.0 per cent., or 29.3 per cent. for males and 12.7 per cent. for females since 1891.

Brick, Plain Tile, Terra-Cotta—Makers

The two principal headings in this order are affected for purposes of comparison by a change in the classification of Terra-Cotta Makers; nevertheless, some indication may be given of their growth. Brick and Plain Tile Makers (including Terra-Cotta Makers) numbered 63,927, of whom only 3,071 were females, compared with 43,688, of whom 2,666 were females in 1891, when Terra-Cotta Makers were excluded; figures which point to a very considerable increase, probably due to the development of the Building Trade.

Earthenware, China, Porcelain—Manufacture

The manufacture of Earthenware, China, and Porcelain, excluding that of Terra-Cotta, gave employment to 37,998 males and 24,477 females, there being an advance of 3,170 males and 2,705 females on the numbers (including Terra-Cotta Makers) returned in 1891; thus the industry must have advanced more than the 10.4 per cent., or 9.1 per cent. for males and 12.4 per cent. for females, indicated by these figures.

The appended Table shows the counties chiefly concerned with these two industries. Brick-making is distributed throughout the country while Earthenware Manufacture is practically monopolised by Staffordshire, with 77.2 per cent. of the total workers:—

Brick, Plain Tile, Terra-Cotta—Makers. Earthenware, China, Porcelain—Manufacture.
Registration County. 1891. 1901. Registration County. 1891. 1901.
Staffordshire 4,898 7,397 Staffordshire 44,550 48,236
Yorkshire—West Riding 3,808 6,377 London 1,800 1,966
Lancashire 4,621 5,856 Yorkshire—West Riding 1,584 1,633
Kent 3,359 5,129 Lancashire 613 1,623
Durham 1,591 2,593 Derbyshire 1,257 1,456
Essex 1,207 2,099 Leicestershire 642 1,083
Northamptonshire 739 2,068 Shropshire 697 955
All Other Counties 23,465 32,408 All Other Counties 5,457 5,523

Glass Manufacture

At the recent Census the Glass Workers were differentiated under three headings— Sheet and Plate Glass Manufacture; Glass Bottle Manufacture; and Other Workers in Glass Manufacture. Taking the three headings together there were 30,081 persons (of whom 2,363 were females) following this occupation, against 26,160 in 1891, the increase during the decennium being in the proportion of 15.0 per cent., as compared with an increase of 20.9 per cent. between 1881 and 1891. The distribution of the number engaged in the glass industry is set forth in the following Table:—

Registration County. 1891. 1901. Registration County. 1891. 1901.
Lancashire 7,705 8,801 Warwickshire 1,725 1,560
Yorkshire—West Riding 5,862 7,321 Staffordshire 1,047 1,065
London 3,171 3,881      
Durham 2,684 2,642 All Other Counties 1,675 2,567
Worcestershire 2,291 2,244      

From the returns, it appears that sheet and plate glass are produced mainly in Lancashire, and glass bottles in the West Riding of Yorkshire, in Lancashire, and in Durham.

Plaster, Cement Manufacture

The makers of Plaster and Cement numbered 9,661, having increased since 1891 by 77.9 per cent. Of the total number in 1901, no fewer than 5,359 were enumerated in Kent.


Under the Fifteenth Order in connection with the manufacture and sale of Chemicals, Oil, Grease, &c., there were returned 101,938 males and 26,702 females—together 138,640 persons, as compared with 91,284 similarly returned in 1891. These numbers show an increase during the 10 years equal to 40.9 per cent., the males having advanced 32.4 per cent. and the females 86.7 per cent. With the exception of Candle, Grease, &c., Manufacture, which has shown a decline at every Census since 1851, the numbers employed under all the headings in this Order show an advance on those enumerated in 1891.

Gunpowder, Other Explosives, and Lucifer Matches

The greatest proportional increase has taken place among makers of Gunpowder and other Explosive Substances, who numbered 3,590 compared with 1,561 in 1891; this increase being no doubt partially due to the South African War. The manufacture of Lucifer Matches was not distinguished from that of Cartridges, Fireworks, and other Explosive Articles in 1891; it is therefore, impossible to ascertain in what proportions these manufactures have varied during the decennium; but if we take them in the aggregate we arrive at a total of 9,785 persons in 1901, against 5,061 in 1891 and 2,837 in 1881.

Salt, Drugs, and other Chemicals and Compounds

Under the headings of Manufacturing Chemists and Alkali Manufacture, there were returned 27,220 persons, the increase being 26.7 per cent on the numbers so returned in 1891. The Counties of Lancaster and Chester are the most important centres of Alkali Manufacture, containing respectively 4,543 and 3,400 persons out of the total of 9,705 engaged in that industry. Chemists and Druggists (including Drysalters), upon whom the distribution of these products largely falls, increased from 23,397 to 28,448 or 21.6 per cent But we may note that these figures include not only Chemists in the ordinary acceptation of that term, but also the more highly skilled bodies of men known respectively as Consulting Chemists and Pharmacists.

The persons engaged in the production of Salt which is mainly carried on in Cheshire, amounted to 3,008. In 3891 the number (with the addition of Dealers) was 2,995.

Colouring Matter, Oil, Grease, Soap, Resin, &c.

The workers in India Rubber and Gutta Percha and the makers of Waterproof Goods together numbered 18,516 as compared with 10,612 in 1891, showing an increase of no less than 74.5 per cent. This is probably due in a great measure to the demand for rubber in connection with tyres and electrical applicants. Soap Boilers and Makers show a gain from 3,759 to 6,937, or 84.5 per cent., Manure Manufacturers from 931 to 1,678 or 80.2 per cent., and Oil Millers and Oil Cake Makers from 3,858 to 5,477, or 42.0 per cent., while Dye, Paint, Ink and Blacking Manufactures increased from 4,545 to 6,903, or 51.9 per cent.


As Workers or Dealers in Skins, Leather, Hair, and Feathers, there were enumerated under the sixteenth Order at the recent Census 80,071 males and 25,270 females, together 105,341 persons the number having increased by 14.3 per cent since the previous Census. The increase of female workers has been much greater than that of male—the proportion of increase having been 32.7 per cent. for the former and 9.5 per cent. for the latter sex.

The aggregate number returned under the three headings of "Furriers, Skinners," "Tanners" and "Curriers, Leather Goods Makers" was 48,702 the increase being 5.4 per cent on the numbers so returned at the previous Census. But it must be borne in mind that the decline of Furriers and Skinners during the last decennium from 10,012 to 9,731 may thus be partly explained. At the recent Census, Fellmongers were classed to one or other of the above headings or else as Dealers, according to the use of the term in the various districts, but in 1891 they had in all cases been classed with Tanners, and this change of classification may explain the apparent reduction of 7.2 per cent that has taken place among Tanners in the course of the last 10 years. Curriers and Leather Goods Makers, numbering 29,363, increased by 13.7 percent since 1891, and the increase would, of course, have been greater had allowance been made for the exclusion of Dealers from this heading in 1901.

Saddlery and Harness

In connection with the manufacture of Saddlery, Harness, &c., 25,954 males and 4730 females, together 30,684 persons, were employed, showing an increase of 12.3 per cent on the numbers enumerated in 1891. Not fewer than 7,629 of these persons 4,435 males and 3,194 females, were enumerated in the County Borough of Walsall, the numbers there having increased during the last decennium by 34.2 per cent., or distinguishing the sexes, the males by 14.4 per cent. and the females by 76.9 per cent. In London, where very few of these workers were females, the total increased only from 3,877 in 1891 to 4,179 in 1901, or only by 7.8 per cent.

Hair and Feathers

The makers of Brushes and Brooms numbered 16,264, against 15,852 at the previous Census, and comprised 9,259 males and 7,005 females; the latter increased during the decennium by 18.6 per cent., and in this industry appear to be rapidly supplanting the males, whose number declined within the same period by 4.4 per cent. Quill and Feather Dressers numbered 3,830 (of whom 3,372 were females) as compared with 2,828 (of whom 2,368 were females) in 1891: thus the total increased 35.4 per cent. and the females 42.4 per cent.


The Production and Distribution of Paper, Prints, Books and Stationery, as comprised in the Seventeenth Order, employed 188,057 males and 90,900 females in the aggregate 278,957 persons, showing an increase of 26.9 per cent. on the total in 1891. In this group of industries also female employment seems to be taking the place of male, the number of the former sex thus engaged having increased since the previous Census by 43.6 per cent., and that of the latter sex by 20.1.

Paper Manufacture

In the Paper-making industry 24,210 persons were employed at the recent Census, the number having increased since 1891 by 20.8 per cent., as compared with an increase of 7.6 per cent. in the previous intercensal period. The counties chiefly concerned in paper making are Lancashire with 6,017 workers, Kent with 4,203. London with 1,746, Yorkshire (West Riding) with 1,471, Durham with 1,102, and Hertfordshire with 1,029. This heading may to some small extent overlap that for Paper Stainers, which showed a decline from 2,537 to 2,319, or 8.6 per cent.; but, taking the two headings together, there was an increase of 13.1 per cent. as against 8.1 per cent. in the previous decennium.


As engaged in the manufacture and sale of Stationery, 20,713 males and 42,733 females were enumerated in 1901, the increase since the previous Census having been 22.0 per cent. for males and 44.3 per cent. for females. The following Table shows the numbers of males and females in the several branches of the trade at each of the last two Censuses, and also the rates of increase in the decennium. It will be observed that the makers and sellers of stationery were separately abstracted at the last Census, but grouped together in 1891.

Occupations. 1891. 1901. Increase per cent.
Males. Females. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Stationery Manufacture } 14,561 9,970 { 4,381 4,698 } 28.1 17.0 44.2
Stationers, Law Stationers 12,652 9,683
Envelope Makers 289 2,458   370 3,143 27.9 28.0 27.9
Paper Box, Paper Bag—Makers 2,121 17,178   3,310 25,209 47.8 56.1 46.8
Aggregate 16,971 29,606   20,713 42,733 36.2 22.0 44.3

Prints and Books

In connection with Prints and Books, there were returned 106,181 Printers, 11,725 Lithographers or Copper and Steel Plate Printers, 31,887 Bookbinders, and 31,862 Publishers, Booksellers, and Newspaper Agents, &c. The numbers of both sexes engaged in these industries and their rates of increase since 1891 will be seen from the Table appended:—

Occupations. 1891. 1901. Increase per cent.
Males. Females. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Printers 81,959 4,527 96,488 9,693 22.8 17.7 114.1
Lithographers; Copper and Steel Plate Printers 9,224 467 10,682 1,043 21.0 15.8 123.3
Bookbinders 11,487 14,249 12,664 19,223 23.9 10.2 34.9
Publishers, Booksellers; Newspaper Agents, News Room Keepers 18,902 4,492 25,591 6,271 36.2 35.4 39.6

It may be stated that, although in a less degree than formerly, London still continues to be the chief centre of the printing industry, 35 per cent. of the Printers, 31 per cent. of the Lithographers, and 52 per cent. of the Bookbinders having been enumerated in the Metropolis at the recent Census. In the year 1891 the several proportions had been 41 per cent., 40 per cent., and 62 per cent. respectively.


The Eighteenth Order comprises 492,175 males and 663,222 females, in all 1,155,397 persons, engaged in the manufacture or sale of Textile Fabrics. For purposes of comparison it is preferable to transfer the 135,657 Drapers, Linen Drapers, and Mercers to the Dress Order XIX., inasmuch, as in addition to dealing in Textile Fabrics, they have become, to a large extent, retailers of dress and indeed of many other commodities. In this case the returns in the textile group amount to 1,019,740, which is 51,799, or 4.8 per cent., less than the number similarly classed in 1891. But over 44,000 of the actual deficiency is accounted for by a reduction, owing to the restriction of child labour, in the number of children employed under fifteen years of age. We give in the appended Table the numbers of Makers of, and Dealers in. Textile Fabrics (excluding Drapers, Linen Drapers, and Mercers), returned at all ages and at ages 15 years and upwards since 1851, together with the rates of increase or decrease during the intercensal periods:—

Year. All Ages. Aged 15 years and upwards.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
1851* 995,021 502,896 492,125 839,316 431,295 408,021
1861* 1,021,196 476,109 545,087 867,267 407,921 459,346
1871* 1,016,595 446,099 570,496 861,441 381,455 479,986
1881 1,012,274 428,513 583,761 894,036 377,340 516,696
1891 1,071,539 458,344 613,195 925,952 395,430 530,522
1901 1,019,740 424,955 594,785 918,283 383,424 534,859
Increase (+)
or Decrease (—)
per cent.
{ 1851-61 2.6 -5.3 10.8 3.3 -5.4 12.6
1861-71 -0.5 -6.3 4.7 -0.7 -6.5 4.5
1871-81 -0.4 -3.9 2.3 3.8 -1.1 7.6
1881-91 5.9 7.0 5.0 3.6 4.8 2.7
1891-1901 -4.8 -7.3 -3.0 -0.8 -3.0 0.8
* The numbers for 1851,1861, and 1871, include the "Retired."

The falling-off during 1891 to 1901 has been almost general, the only manufactures showing increase being Lace and rough textiles (i.e., the group consisting of Hemp, Jute, Cocoa-Fibre, Rope, Mat, Canvas, Sailcloth, &c., Manufacture). But, although the numbers of males classed under separate Textile Manufactures decreased, the aggregate of those returned as Bleachers, Printers, Dyers, and Finishers has increased from 39,632 to 51,469. These figures are, however, not strictly comparable, the increase being in part due to the more complete separation in 1901 than in 1891 of the Bleachers, Dyers, &c., from persons engaged in manufacturing processes. Dealers (excluding Drapers, &c.) increased from 13,288 to 25,072; but much of this increase is only apparent, being the result of the more precise classification already alluded to. The figures for the industries or groups of industries shown in the following Table may, however, be taken as showing with approximate accuracy, the rates of increase or decrease during the decennium:—

Occupation. 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or Decrease (—) per cent
All Ages. Aged 15 years and upwards.
Males Fem-
Males Fem-
Persons Males Fem-
Persons Males Fem-
Cotton Manufacture 213,231 332,784 196,898 332,233 -3.1 -7.7 -0.2 1.9 -2.2 4.4
Fustian Manufacture 3,220 4,962 2,060 3,552 -31.4 -36.0 -28.4 -30.0 -34.1 -27.2
Flax, Linen—Manufacture 2,574 5,592 1,146 3,347 -45.0 -55.5 -40.1 -44.0 -54.7 -39.1
Wool and Worsted Manufacture 107,237 135,097 87,671 122,069 -13.5 -18.2 -9.6 -9.6 -14.8 -5.5
Silk Manufacture 16,235 32,562 10,380 24,467 -28.6 -36.1 -24.9 -26.7 -34.3 -22.9
Hosiery Manufacture 18,200 30,887 13,893 34,481 -1.5 -23.7 11.6 -1.2 -23.8 13.0
Lace Manufacture 13,030 21,716 12,632 23,807 4.9 -3.1 9.6 5.5 -2.8 10.5
Hemp, Jute, Cocoa Fibre, Rope, Mat, Canvas, Sailcloth—Manufacture 13,313 8,610 12,352 11,984 11.0 -7.2 39.2 14.6 -3.5 40.4
Carpet, Rug, Felt—Manufacture 9,435 7,408 7,150 7,652 -12.1 -24.2 3.3 -9.2 -22.7 9.1

Cotton Manufacture

More than half of the total workers in textile industries were engaged in Cotton Manufacture, which gave employment to no less than 529,131 persons, or 196,898 males and 332,233 females. This important industry unfortunately shows for the first time a decline in the aggregate number employed, as may be seen from the subjoined Table:—

Year. Persons. Males. Females. Increase (+) or Decrease (-) per cent.
Persons. Males. Females.
1861* 458,239 198,591 259,648
1871* 468,938 188,644 280,294 2.3 -5.0 8.0
1881* 487,777 185,410 302,367 4.0 -1.6 7.9
1891 546,015 213,231 332,784 11.9 15.0 10.1
1901 529,131 196,898 332,233 -3.1 -7.7 -0.2
* The numbers for 1861 and 1871 include the "Retired."

The decline here shown of 3.1 per cent. in the number employed in an industry of such magnitude is unquestionably a matter of serious concern. The figures are no doubt to some extent affected by the restriction of the employment of children, but if we take the numbers at ages 15 and upwards, there is still only the small increase of 1.9 per cent. (as compared with an increase of 9.6 per cent. in the previous decennial period). The Statistical Abstract of the Board of Trade shows that the import of raw cotton into the United Kingdom in the five years ending with 1901, was 1.9 per cent. lower than in the five years ending with 1891; moreover, the returns of the Chief Inspector of Factories show that the number of persons employed in Cotton Factories has decreased each year since 1895. It is noteworthy that among the males there was a very considerable decline at ages up to 25, probably from the fact that many young persons, who formerly would have joined the cotton trade, now enter, amongst others, the Metal, Machine, and Engineering Industries, which offer prospects of higher wages or better conditions of employment. In support of this, we notice that the numbers in these industries largely increased in Lancashire, the seat of the cotton trade, especially at the ages 15 to 25. No less than 85.1 per cent. of the persons engaged in Cotton Manufacture were enumerated in the Registration County of Lancaster, or 450,420 compared with 459,974 in 1891; and, of the remainder, 37,949 against 39,546 were in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 21,304 against 23,844 in Cheshire, and 12,046 against 13,621 in Derbyshire.

Fustian Manufacture

The Fustian Manufacture, which just managed to maintain its position between 1881 and 1891, showed a decline in the numbers employed during the last decennium from 8,182 to 5,612, or 31.4 per cent. The diminution in its numbers is most marked in the Registration Counties of Lancaster and Chester, in the former county the numbers falling from 4,020 to 2,275, and in the latter from 2,682 to 1,751; whereas in the West Riding of Yorkshire the decrease was only from 1,195 to 1,112.

Flax, Linen, Manufacture

The Flax and Linen Manufacture has for many years past been declining in this Country: but in no previous decennium has the rate of decline been so pronounced as in that ending in 1901. In 1881 there were 12,065 persons occupied in these industries, but by 1891 the number had been reduced to 8,166, and by 1901 to 4,493, representing successive declines of 32.3 per cent. and 45.0 per cent.; of these 4,493 persons, 2,103 were enumerated in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and 1,329 in Lancashire.

Wool and Worsted Manufacture

Next in importance to the Cotton industry is that of Wool and Worsted, the remarkable fluctuations of which since 1861 may be seen from the annexed Table. The present classification differs from that adopted in 1891, but the aggregate of the figures returned at that Census under Woollen Cloth, Worsted, Stuff, Flannel, and Blanket Manufactures, together with Fullers and others Working in Wool and Worsted, may be taken as being approximately comparable with those for Wool and Worsted Manufacture in 1901.

Year. Persons. Males. Females. Increase (+) or Decrease (-) per cent.
Persons. Males. Females.
1861* 220,892 119,502 101,390
1871* 235,235 114,485 120,750 6.5 -4.2 19.1
1881* 222,371 97,638 124,733 -5.5 -14.7 3.3
1891 242,334 107,237 135,097 9.0 9.8 8.3
1901 209,740 87,671 122,069 -13.5 -18.2 -9.6
* The numbers for 1861 and 1871 include the "Retired."

It thus appears that during the last decennium there was a decline of no less than 13.5 per cent. whereas between 1881 and 1891 there had been an increase of 9.0 per cent.; or, if comparison be con fined to the totals at ages 15 years and upwards, there was a decline of 9.6 per cent compared with an increase of 6.1 per cent. Examining the number for this important industry under the age groups, we observe that among the male woollen operatives at these ages is probably attributable to the same causes as the similar decline among cotton operatives. Among females the falling off is most marked at ages 15 to 20. His Majesty's Chief Inspector of Factories and Workshops, in his Report for 1901, attributes the decrease in the employment of young persons, among other causes, to "alterations." In machinery, lengthening of spinning frames, and speeding up of machinery."

Of the total persons engaged in this industry, 181,004 or 86 per cent were enumerated in the Registration County of York West Riding, against 209,735 or 87 per cent in 1891; and, of the remainder, 9,792 against 11,894 were enumerated in Lancashire, 4,780 against 5,414 in Gloucestershire and Sumersetshire, 2,468 against 1,367 in Leicestershire, and 1,896 against 3,403 in Wiltshire.

Silk Manufacture

Throughout England generally, for many years past, the Silk Manufacture has undergone progressive decline. In the year 1851 the number of persons of both sexes engaged in this industry was over 120,00, whilst in 1891 it was only 48,797. Between 1891 and 1901, the number further declined by 28.6 per cent to 8,761; in Yorkshire, West Riding, from 9,851 to 8,624; in Staffordshire from 3,905 to 3,305; in Warwickshire from 5,590 to 3,289; in Lancashire from 4,719 to 2,638; in Essex from 2,602 to 1,827; and in Norfolk from 1,785 to 1,624.

The causes of the decline in the 'throwing' branches of this trade are summed by one of H.M. Inspectors of Factories, as follows:—" (1) Smaller production of silk goods, owing to competition with foreign countries. (2) The change in the demand for a finer and more level silk fibre. (3) The gradually improving conditions through the Chinese reeling their raw silk on an improved principle, which obviates the necessity of 'throwing' under the old conditions." In 1890 and 1891 the total weight of raw silk imported into the United Kingdom amounted to 4,395,890 Ibs., whilst in 1900 and 1901 it fell to 2,745,800 Ibs., the reduction being equal to 37.5 per cent.

Hemp and Other Fibrous Materials

The group comprising Hemp, Jute, Cocoa-Fibre, Rope, Mat, Canvas, Sailcloth, &c., Manufacture, gave employment to 24,336 persons (12,352 males and 11,984 females), as compared with 21,923 (13,313 males and 8,610 females) in 1891, showing an increase of 11.0 per cent., the females having increased no less than 39.2 per cent., while the males actually decreased 7.2 per cent. The increase in the group is confined to two headings "Mat Makers" and "Canvas, Sacking, Sailcloth, Net, &c. Manufacture," the numbers in the former having risen from 2,742 to 3,089, or 12.7 per cent., and in the latter from 4,909 to 8,377, or 70.6 per cent.; in both of these trades the females advanced at a higher rate than the males. It is not, however, always possible satisfactorily to separate workers in these industries from those in Hemp, Jute, Cocoa-Fibre Manufacture, the numbers under which show a decline from 3,531 to 2,750, or 22.1 per cent. These three manufactures are of less numerical importance than that of Hope, Twine, and Cord, in which the numbers declined from 10,741 to 10,120, or 5.8 per cent., the females having increased from 2,369 to 3,239, or 367 per cent., while the males decreased from 8,372 to 6,881, or 17.8 per cent.

Hosiery Manufacture

The persons employed in the manufacture of Hosiery, who, between 1881 and 1891, had increased by 21.6 per cent., declined from 49,087 to 48,374, or 1.5 per cent., during the past decennium, Taking the sexes separately, there was a falling-off of no less than 23.7 per cent. among the males, while the females advanced 11.6 per cent. The probable explanation of these changes may be stated as follows:— Males were formerly employed In the manufacture of hosiery by hand frames, and Females in the finishing processes. The hand frames are now becoming obsolete, being superseded by steam-driven automatic machinery, which not only requires fewer hands, but has gradually led to the substitution of females for males. Females employed in the finishing processes have not, however, been similarly displaced by labour-saving machinery. In 1901 the industry gave employment to 34,481 females as against 13,893 males, or a proportion of 713 females in every 1,000 persons employed; the corresponding proportions at the four Censuses from 1861 to 1891 had been 468, 468, 533, and 629, in 1,000 respectively.

Of the total of 48,374 persons engaged in Hosiery Manufacture in 1901, not less than 79 per cent. were returned from the counties of Leicester and Nottingham. The numbers enumerated at the last three Censuses in these and some other counties in which the Industry is carried on were as follows: —

Registration County. 1881. 1891. 1901.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Leicestershire 21,594 9,388 12,206 25,176 9,259 15,917 25,543 7,442 18,101
Nottinghamshire 14,155 7,917 6,238 15,377 7,222 8,155 12,912 5,003 7,909
Derbyshire 2,275 1,187 1,088 2,138 914 1,224 2,716 748 1,968
Lancashire 216 38 178 2,226 263 1,963 1,829 159 1,670
Yorkshire—West Riding 128 22 106 1,108 168 940 1,233 106 1,127

Lace Manufacture

The number of persons engaged in Lace manufacture increased from 34,746 in 1891 to 36,439 in 1901, or 4.9 per cent., which is remarkable considering that the facture. industry, which had employed 61,726 persons in 1851, had shown decline at every successive Census. Between 1881 and 1891 the falling-off was 21.3 per cent.; and the opinion was advanced in the Census Report for 1891 that, whilst this decline was presumably due in part to the increased importation of foreign lace, the chief cause was the increasing supersession of pillow-made or bone lace by bobbin net, first made by hand machines, but more recently by water power or steam power.4

In the counties of Nottingham and Derby, where lace is principally made by machinery, there has been an increase at each Census since 1871, while in the counties of Bedford, Buckingham, and Northampton, the seats of hand-made lace, where the industry is practically limited to females, the numbers have continuously fallen from 23,450 in 1861 to 2,350 in 1901. During the intercensal period 1881-1891 the numerical increase in the counties where Lace is manufactured by machinery did not nearly counterbalance the great decrease in the counties where it is hand-made; during the period 1891-1901, however, the increase in the former counties was numerically greater than the decrease in the latter. This may be seen from the following Table which gives the numbers at the last three Censuses in each of the counties mentioned, and in Devonshire and Somersetshire where the lace is now mainly machine-made.

Registration County. 1881.* 1891. 1901.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Nottinghamshire 22,228 8,905 13,323 24,112 9,969 14,143 24,817 8,611 16,206
Derbyshire 2,233 1,173 1,060 3,386 2,016 1,370 5,024 3,020 2,004
Devonshire 3,428 355 3,073 1,644 359 1,285 1,852 346 1,506
Somersetshire 596 256 340 736 306 430 886 412 474
Bedfordshire 4,792 12 4,780 1,532 8 1,524 1,105 4 1,101
Buckinghamshire 4,456 14 4,442 1,113 5 1,108 758 3 755
Northamptonshire 3,232 11 3,221 731 2 729 487 3 484
* The figures for 1881 include Dealers.

Coincidently with the decline of hand-made lace, the proportion of females in 1,000 persons engaged in lace making declined progressively from 829 in the year 1861 to 625 in 1891; it, however, rose during the latest decennial period to 653, owing, apparently, to the substitution of female for male workers in the county of Nottingham and in some other counties.

Carpet Manufacture

The workers in Carpet, Rug, Felt, Manufacture, who had increased in the two preceding intercensal periods by 21.5 per cent. and by 16.4 per cent. respectively, fell from 16,843 in 1891 to 14,802 in 1901, or 12.1 per cent. It is probable, however, that a number of persons employed in spinning mills, who at the recent Census were classed according to the fabric spun, would in 1891 have been employed in Carpet Factories and classified accordingly. For this reason the apparent rate of decline may be regarded as an over-statement. In the Registration County of Worcester, for example, the decline in the numbers was from 7,379 to 6,054, or 18.0 per cent., but if we include all other textile manufactures, of which the most important was Wool and Worsted Spinning, the decline was only from 7,957 to 7,850, or 1.3 per cent. The remaining Counties principally concerned in the manufacture of Carpets, &c., are the West Riding of Yorkshire and Lancashire, in the former of which the numbers also declined from 6,392 to 5,862, whereas in the latter they increased from 812 to 1,037. This is another industry in which the decline has occurred among the males only, the females having increased 3.3 per cent. It may be stated that at the five Censuses 1861 to 1901 the proportions of females in 1,000 persons employed in this manufacture were successively 183, 312, 362, 440, and 517.


Under the Nineteenth Order are brought together persons working and dealing in Dress to the number of 1,125,598, of whom 414,637 were males and 710,961 females. We shall, however, for purposes of numerical comparison depart from the classification adopted in the Occupation Tables and include Drapers, Linen. Drapers, and Mercers from Order XVIII., these being to a large extent makers and sellers of dress as well as of materials for its fabrication; also in the case of Females, the Machinists (undefined) from Order XXIL, as a large number so returned in 1891 were sewing machinists; but we shall exclude Hairdressers and Wig Makers who increased from 25,337 to 35,656, or by 40.7 per cent. in the last decennium, as among these many were engaged in personal services, rather than working and dealing in articles of attire. The group thus constituted contained 1,226,424 (447,946 males and 778,478 females) as against 1,158,182 (427,295 males and 730,887 females) in 1891; the increase during the decennium being equal to 5.9 per cent., or 4.8 per cent. for males, and 6.5 per cent. for females. In the following Table is indicated the progress or decline of the constituent industries. The occupations are grouped with the object of facilitating such comparisons between the figures for 1891 and those for 1901 as can be made with approximate accuracy.

Occupations. 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or
Decrease (—)
Per cent.
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers 107,018 60,671 46,347   135,657 67,220 68,437   26.8 10.8 47.7
Tailors } 718,206 131,796 586,410 { 237,185 119,545 117,640 } 6.2 14.5 4.3
Clothiers, Outfitters (Dealers) 22,107 17,701 4,406
Milliners 49,231 472 48,759
Hat, Bonnet, Straw Plait, etc., Dealers (Females) 1,936 1,936
Dressmakers 341,599 1,017 340,582
Staymakers 13,594 1,321 12,273
Shirtmakers, Seamstresses 87,666 4,039 83,627
Hosiers, Haberdashers 8,627 6,786 1,841
Machinists, undefined (Female) 825 825
Boot, Shoe—Makers } 248,789 202,648 46,141 { 218,581 174,806 43,775 } 0.9 -2.1 14.5
Slipper Makers 4,348 2,999 1,349
Patten, Clog—Makers 6,328 6,276 52
Boot, Shoe, Slipper, Patten, Clog—Dealers 21,886 14,223 7,663
Glove Makers* 11,955 2,756 9,199   10,186 2,433 7,753   -14.8 -11.7 -15.7
Straw Plait Manufacture* } 18,384 3,425 14,959 { 1,847 493 1,354 } -19.8 13.0 -27.3
Straw Hat, Bonnet, Manufacture* 12,898 3,378 9,520
Felt Hat Manufacture } 28,948 16,363 12,585 { 11,350 6,634 4,716 } -4.0 -2.9 -5.3
Makers of other Hats, Caps, etc. 12,639 5,434 7,205
Hat, Bonnet, Straw Plait, etc., Dealers (Males) 3,815 3,815
Artificial Flower Makers* 5,158 722 4,436   3,138 474 2,664   -39.2 -34.3 -39.9
Button Makers 5,056 1,949 3,107   4,204 1,240 2,964   -16.9 -36.4 -4.6
Umbrella, Parasol, Stick—Makers 9,877 5,377 4,500   9,542 4,935 4,607   -3.4 -8.2 2.4
Other Workers in Dress } 4,791 1,588 3,203 { 1,806 690 1,116 } 51.0 70.3 41.4
Other Dealers in Dress 5,429 2,015 3,414
Total 1,158,182 427,295 730,887   1,226,424 447,946 778,478   5.9 4.8 6.5
* The figures for 1891 include Dealers.

Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers

The total in 1901 is composed of 1,026,967 persons classified as Makers of Drapers, Articles of Dress and 199,457 as Dealers. Among the latter number were 135,657 Linen Drapers, Linen Drapers, and Mercers, who showed an increase of 26.8 per cent., following on an increase of 29.9 per cent. in the preceding decennium, the greater portion of the increase in each case being among females. In 1901 the female Drapers, Linen Drapers, and Mercers exceeded the males in number, forming 504 per thousand of the total as against 433 in 1891 and 349 in 1881.

Tailors, Milliners, Dressmakers, Staymakers, Seamstresses, &c.

For purposes of comparison recent changes in classification have necessitated the amalgamation, as shown in the Table, of seven occupational headings and the female portion of two other headings, female Machinists being included for reasons already given and female Hat, &c., Dealers because they are mainly employed in connection with the sale of millinery. In the aggregate not fewer than 762,770 persons were enumerated as following these occupations in 1901 as compared with 718,206 in 1891, which represents a rise of 6.2 per cent., the males having increased by 14.5 per cent. and the females by 4.3 per cent. Of the 150,881 males engaged in this group of occupations, 137,246 were returned as Tailors or as Clothiers (Dealers); making allowance for changes of classification, the increase among them since 1891 is probably equal to 13 per cent., but is certainly greater than the 11 per cent. recorded in the previous decennium. European Foreigners contributed largely to the increase, as they advanced from 11,687 to 19,955, or 71.5 per cent.; and, whereas in 1891 only 9.7 per cent. of the total Tailors and Clothiers were European Foreigners, in 1901 the proportion was as high as 14.5 per cent. If we exclude European Foreigners from the calculation the rate of increase will be reduced to 8.7 per cent. With the females it is impossible to measure accurately how the separate industries have contributed to the general increase from 586,410 to 611,889, or only 4.3 per cent as against an increase of 16.1 per cent in the preceding decennium.

Boot, Shoe, &c., Makers and Dealers

The makers of and dealers in Boots, Shoes, Slippers, Pattens, and Clogs totalled 251,143, having increased by less than one per cent as compared with 11.0 per cent between 1881 and 1891; in the two decennial periods previous to, 1881 the numbers had declined. This decline was attributed to the saving of labour by the substitution of machinery for hand work, and the increase of 11.0 per cent. between 1881 and 1891 was thought to show that the substitution had reached such a stage that the numbers employed were again advancing with the population. The small rate of increase now shown, however, has caused us to make further inquiry into the relatively large advance in the period 1881-1891, and we find that it was not a general growth throughout the country but occurred mainly in the Counties of Northampton and Leicester and in the County Boroughs of Norwich and Leeds, which are centres for machine-made goods. In the two counties named and in the Borough of Norwich there was again an increase during the period 1891 to 1901, but this was little more than enough to compensate for the decline in the remainder of the country. In the case of males, indeed, there was a decrease in the country as a whole, this being slightly more than counter-balanced by the increase of females. It appears, therefore, that notwithstanding the increase of population during the last decennium, the number of persons engaged in making boots and shoes was practically the same in 1901 as it had been in 1891; but that at the later date more were employed in tending machinery and fewer in hand-work. The following Table will illustrate these remarks:—

Districts. 1881. 1891. 1901. Increase
(+) or
(—) per
Males Fem-
Males Fem-
Males Fem-
Registration Counties                      
24,377 16,546 7,831 36,134 25,796 10,338 41,989 29,695 12,294 48.2 16.2
16,714 12,003 4,711 30,513 21,769 8,744 35,230 24,243 10,987 82.6 15.5
County Boroughs—                      
  Norwich 5,069 3,297 1,772 6,384 4,503 1,881 7,600 5,001 2,599 25.9 19.0
  Leeds 5,896 4,760 1,136 7,662 6,154 1,508 7,546 5,820 1,726 30.0 -1.5
  52,056 36,606 15,450 80,693 58,222 22,471 92,365 64,759 27,606 55.0 14.5
Remainder of Country 172,003 151,707 20,296 168,096 144,426 23,670 158,778 133,545 25,233 -2.3 -5.5
land and Wales
224,059 188,313 35,746 248,789 202,648 46,141 251,143 198,304 52,839 11.0 0.9

The Table shows that, while the total number employed increased by 0.9 per cent. in 1891-1901, the number of males decreased by 4,344 or 2.2 per cent., and the number of females increased by 6,698 or 14.5 per cent. In addition to the substitution of females for males in the boot trade thus shown, there appears to have been a substitution of younger for older males; for while those between 20 and 45 years of age increased, the numbers at the age-groups above 45 years, which contain the greater proportions of hand-workers, all decreased. In the two years 1900 and 1901, there were 1,308,787 dozens of pairs of boots exported and 531,172 dozens of pairs imported; in the two years 1890 1891 the corresponding figures had been 1,402,319 and 201,695.

Glove Makers

Glove-makers declined in number, although not so fast as in the two previous decennia when the falling-off was successively 33 per cent. and 23 per cent. According to the returns, 10,186 persons, or 2,433 males and 7,753 females, were employed in 1901, the decline since 1891 being equal to 14.8 per cent., which was, however, partly due to the fact that dealers were included in 1891 and excluded in 1901. How far the falling-off is explained by the greater adoption of labour-saving processes and how far by foreign competition, it is impossible to say. In 1901 the County of Sumerset contained 3,288 glove-makers, against 4,080 in 1891 the County of Worcester 2,518, against 2,573; that of Oxford 868, against 1,807; while on the other hand the County of Leicester showed an increase (mainly of woollen glove makers) from 484 to 1.122.

Straw-Plait, Hat, and Bonnet Manufacture

The persons engaged in Straw-Plait, Hat, and Bonnet Manufacture, who had declined 40.7 per cent. between 1881 and 1891, further declined during the last decennium from 18,384 to 14,745, but the latter number does not include Dealers and the real decline is therefore somewhat less than the 19.8 per cent. indicated; the females showing a decline from 14,959 to 10,874, or 27.3 per cent. while the males actually increased 13.0 per cent. from 3,425 to 3,871, the interchange of male for female labour being mainly due to the introduction of straw hat sewing-machines. The chief seat of this industry is Bedfordshire, in which county 11,662 out of the total of 14,745 persons were thus returned; of the remainder, Hertfordshire contained 2,352.

On the present occasion, Straw-Plait Manufacture is for the first time since 1861 shown separately from that of Straw Hats and Bonnets. In the former manufacture, 29,867 persons were employed in 1861, but in 1901 only 1,847, the decline being attributed to the manufacture of plait in foreign countries; in the latter manufacture also the decline has been considerable, from 18,176 in 1861 to 12,898 in 1901.

Hat and Cap (not Straw) Manufacture

The makers of Hats and Caps (not Straw) numbered 23,989, and of these 11,350 were distinguished as producing Felt Hats. All Hatters, whether Makers or Dealers, were included under one heading in 1881 and 1891, and between these two Censuses the numbers increased from 22,689 to 28,948, or 27.6 per cent. In order to compare the figures for 1901, we must add the Male Dealers in Hats, Bonnets, &c., but not the Female Dealers who were, as already stated, probably engaged in selling Millinery; the industry, dealt with in this way, shows a decline of 4.0 per cent., the males having declined at least 2.9 per cent., and the females somewhat less than 5.3 per cent.

Others in Dress

Other headings included in the Dress Order also show decline, the largest falling-off being among Artificial Flower Makers, who numbered 39.2 per cent. less than in 1891, or 8,138 as against 5,158; the latter number, however, including Dealers. In London, where the industry is mainly carried on, the number fell from 4,587 to 2,679, or 41.6 per cent. Button Makers decreased from 5,056 to 4,204, of whom 2,989 were enumerated in the Registration County of Warwick as against 3,883 in 1891; and Umbrella, Parasol, and Stick Makers declined from 9,877 to 9,542, or 3.4 per cent.


The Twentieth Order comprises Workers and Dealers in Food, Tobacco, and Drink, as well as persons concerned in providing Board and Lodging. To these occupations in the aggregate 1,073,809 persons, including 299,518 females, were referred at the recent Census.


In the sub-order relating to Food, there were included 553,873 males and 147,733 females, together 701,606 persons, or more by 19.6 per cent. than the total enumerated in 1891, the males having increased by 18.5 per cent. and the females by 23.9 per cent. In the appended Table will be found for each of the last two Censuses the numbers of persons employed in the constituent industries:—

Occupations. 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or
Decrease (—)
per cent.
Creamery Workers ?   932 ?
Milksellers, Dairymen 35,639   40,901 14.8
Provision Curers } 21,177 { 4,372 } 19.3
Cheesemongers, Buttermen, Provision Dealers 20,882
Slaughterers } 98,921 { 3,580 } 13.8
Butchers, Meat Salesmen 109,015
Fish Curers } 29,711 { 2,863 } 18.2
Fishmongers, Poulterers, Game Dealers 32,267
Millers; Cereal Food Manufacture } 34,406   40,062 16.4
Corn, Flour, Seed—Merchants, Dealers
Bread, Biscuit, Cake, &c.—Makers* } 130,724 { 76,749 } 30.9
Bakers, Confectioners (Dealers)* 72,197
Jam, Preserve, Sweet—Makers 22,131
Sugar Refiners 3,733   2,416 ?
Chocolate, Cocoa—Makers } 181,856 { 7,601 } 10.6
Grocers; Tea, Coffee, Chocolate—Dealers 193,569
Greengrocers, Fruiterers 40,963   52,627 28.5
Ginger Beer, Mineral Water—Manufacture 6,691   11,368 69.9
Mustard, Vinegar, Spice, Pickle, &c.—Makers } 2,956   4,190 } 173.1
Hop—Dealers, Merchants } 3,884
Other Dealers in Food
TOTAL 586,777   701,606 19.6
* The attempt in 1901 to distinguish between Makers of and Dealers in bread was only partially successful.

The foregoing Table indicates that, with the exception of Sugar Refining, in which industry the amount of decrease is uncertain owing to a change of classification, there was during the last decennium a considerable, and in most instances a large, increase in the numbers, returned under the several headings.

Spirituous Drinks, Board and Lodging

The persons concerned in the making and selling of Spirituous Drinks, and those connected with the provision of Board and Lodging, constitute a group which included an aggregate of 327,837 persons, as against 301,895 at the preceding Census. In the following Table the numbers of males and females returned under the several headings are given for each of the last two Census years.

Occupations. 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or
Decrease (—) per cent.
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Maltsters 9,088 9,050 38 9,607 9,595 12 5.7 6.0 ?
Brewers 26,312 25,918 394 27,919 27,822 97 6.1 7.3 ?
Distillers; Spirit Manufacture } 7,883 7,395 488 { 712 706 6 } 20.9 23.1 -11.9
Wine and Spirit Merchants, Agents 8,820 8,396 424
Inn, Hotel —Keepers; Publicans, Beer Sellers; Cider Dealers. 95,619 66,989 28,630 99,915 76,210 23,705 4.5 13.8 -17.2
Cellarmen 9,597 8,773 824 15,394 14,078 1,316 60.4 60.5 59.7
Barmen } 90,683 46,364 44,319 { 56,332 28,625 27,707 } 6.2 2.4 10.1
Others in Inn, Hotel, Eating-house —Service. 39,955 18,849 21,106
Coffee, Eating —House Keepers 11,535 7,455 4,080 19,113 11,870 7,243 65.7 59.2 77.5
Lodging, Boarding —House Keepers 51,178 6,004 45,174 50,070 6,543 43,527 -2.2 9.0 -3.6
Total 301,895 177,948 123,947 327,837 202,694 125,143 8.6 13.9 1.0
Including Herb Beer, Horehound Beer—Makers, Botanic Brewers, and Yeast—Importers, Dealers in 1891, but not in 1901.

According to this Table it would appear that the Maltsters and Brewers did not increase in proportion to the general population. The returns, however, of the Board of Trade show the average quantity of British Beer retained for consumption in the United Kingdom between 1891 and 1901 to have been 33.9 millions of barrels, whilst in the preceding decennial period the quantity did not exceed 28.4 millions of barrels. Persons classed as Distillers or as Wine and Spirit Merchants increased by 20.9 per cent., and those classed as Publicans by 4.5 per cent.; it is possible, however, that the distinction between these headings has not in all cases been precisely shown by the returns. Cellarmen increased 60.4 per cent., largely in consequence of the increased employment of Beer Bottlers, who are included under this heading. The numbers of Barmen and Barmaids are now shown for the first time, the females amounting to 27,707, being in the proportion of 97 to 100 Barmen. In 1891 Barmen and Barmaids were classed together with "Others in Inn, Hotel, Eating-House, Service"—a group that includes Waiters—the aggregate of the two groups increased by 6.2 per cent. during the decennium. The persons returned as Coffee and Eating-House Keepers show the large increase of 65.7 per cent., while on the other hand Lodging and Boarding-House Keepers appear to have declined 2.2 per cent., but these results should be accepted with caution.


Many of the persons included in the above Table as providing lodging and refreshment are also retailers of food and tobacco, so that the limits of these sub-sections are by no means clearly defined. Nevertheless, the number of persons separately returned as engaged either in the manufacture or sale of Tobacco was 44,366 (17,724 males and 26,642 females), showing an increase of 53.1 per cent. Of the females, 19,972 were engaged in Tobacco Manufacture, as compared with only 7,524 males. The Statistical Abstract of the Board of Trade shows that the average yearly imported quantity of unmanufactured tobacco retained for consumption in the United Kingdom between 1881 and 1891 was approximately 52 millions of pounds, and between 1891 and 1901 it was 67 millions of pounds; whilst the average quantity of imported manufactured tobacco retained for home consumption rose within the same period from 1.9 millions of pounds to 3.1 millions.


Persons engaged in connection with the supply of Gas, Water, and Electricity, and in the Sanitary Service (the clerical staff excepted), are included in the Twenty-first Order; they numbered 71,425 persons, of whom only 141 were females.

Gasworks Service

The Gasworks Service furnished employment for not fewer than 47,028 males at the recent Census. At the Censuses of 1851, 1861 and 1871, the numbers so employed (with the addition of Clerks) were 4,714, 8,746 and 13,561, respectively. In 1881, 1891, and 1901 the numbers (exclusive of clerks) rose successively to 18,535, 30,729 and, as already stated, 47,028. Thus, in spite of the rival industry of Electric Lighting, an increase of 65.8 per cent. in 1881-91 was followed by a further increase of 53.0 per cent. during the recent intercensal period.

Waterworks Service

Under the heading "Waterworks Service," only 5,701 males, excluding clerks, were returned at the recent enumeration, but this total was greater than in 1891 by 49.3 per cent. It is, however, necessary to explain that Labourers and Mechanics engaged in waterworks construction and maintenance are referred to their respective crafts, and are not included in "Waterworks Service."

Sanitary Service

The Sanitary Service, including scavenging, drainage, &c., but excluding the officers and clerks of the sanitary authorities, provided employment for 15,6 67 males, the numbers so classified in 1891 having been 6,268.


In the Twenty-second Order are included many miscellaneous industries and, in addition, a list of workers and dealers who have been designated "general" or "undefined," because, although they probably belong to one or other of the foregoing Orders, the information given on the Schedules has not been precise enough to permit of definite classification.

About animals

The first sub-order contains persons engaged "About Animals," who in 1891 were classed in the Agricultural Order. Amongst the constituent headings, male Dealers in and Salesmen of Cattle, Sheep, and Pigs numbered 5,342, and Drovers 2,838 against nearly equal numbers in 1891.

Sundry specified Industries

The second sub-order consists of a few miscellaneous industries (which are shown in the accompanying Table), and of Workers and Dealers who were so returned that they could not be definitely classified.

Industry. 1891. 1901. Increase (+) or
Decrease (—)
per cent.
Males. Females. Males. Females. Males. Females.
Tobacco Pipe, Snuff Box, &c., Makers 1,484 687 1,347 670 -9.2 -2.5
Bone, Horn, Ivory, Tortoise-shell—Workers 2,090 444 1,697 375 -18.8 -15.5
Floor Cloth, Oil Cloth—Manufacture 1,528 78 3,397 94 122.3 ?
Japanners 1,146 1,683 964 1,632 -15.9 -3.1
Chimney Sweepers 7,747 85 6,801 54 -12.2 ?
Rag—Gatherers, Dealers 2,257 1,813 2,572 1,831 14.0 1.0

The large increase in the Floor and Oil Cloth Manufacture is to be accounted for by the development of the industry in Lancashire, where the males increased from 314 to 1,568, of whom 1,120 were enumerated in the Borough of Lancaster. The decrease in the Chimney Sweepers is attributable partly to disinclination among young men to enter this occupation, shown by the reduction in the numbers at ages under 45, and partly to inventions in connection with the abatement of the smoke nuisance. The limits of the other headings in this sub-order are too indefinite to be relied upon for purposes of comparison.

General or Undefined—Makers, Dealers, Mechanics, Labourers

Persons engaged in Pawnbroking and their Assistants increased by 9.3 per cent. between 1891 and 1901, the number returned in 1901 being 10,769 males and 1,761 females. The overlapping of this heading with that of dealers in precious metals, &c., must, however, be taken into account. We are informed by the Inland Revenue Department that the number of Pawnbrokers' Licences taken out in England and Wales in the year ended 31st March, 1901, was 4,280 as compared with 4,014 in 1891, the increase thus being 6.6 per cent.

Persons classified as Costermongers, Hawkers, and Street Sellers increased in number from 58,939 in 1891 to 61,339 in 1901, or by 4.1 per cent.; the males so employed increased by 10.7 per cent., while the females decreased by 13.0 per cent.

Engine Drivers, Stokers and Firemen who were employed otherwise than on railways, on ships, or in agriculture, numbered 106,320 at the last Census, having increased by 29.6 per cent. since 1891. In the previous decennial period the increase had been equal to 24.1 per cent.

The other headings of the last two sub-orders include a large proportion of undefined workers or dealers; in every case they show a reduction since 1891, but the reductions served mainly to indicate the greater precision of the returns of occupation at the recent Census. General Shopkeepers and Dealers numbered 23,539 males and 28,037 females; Contractors, Manufacturers, Managers, and Superintendents (undefined) 6,646 males and 594 females; Artizans, Mechanics, and Apprentices (undefined) 17,330 males and 899 females; Factory Labourers (undefined), 23,663 males and 9,149 females; and Labourers (general or undefined), 409,773 males and 305 females. Labourers who were stated to be attached to definite industries are included with the other workers of such industries, in some cases being classified under separate headings. These separate headings are collected in the following Table:—

Occupations. Males. Occupations. Males.
Railway Labourers (not Railway Contractors' Labourers) 29,562 Plasterers' Labourers 6,853
Dock, Wharf—Labourers 88,631 Navvies, Railway Contractors' Labourers 41,645
Coalheavers; Coal—Porters, Labourers 26,123 Paviours, Road Labourers 50,370
Agricultural Labourers, Farm Servants 583,751  
Clay, Sand, Gravel, Chalk—Labourers 10,258 General or undefined Labourers 409,773
Builders' Labourers 27,436 Factory Labourers (undefined) 23,663
Bricklayers' Labourers 97,779    
Masons' Labourers 23,019 Total 1,418,863


The Twenty-third Order comprises persons who were unoccupied, or who did not specify their occupation. Of males the number so classed was 1,977,283, and of females 9,017,834, making a total of 10,995,117, as compared with 9,301,862 at the preceding Census. In the appended Table are shown the several headings under which such persons were classified at the two Censuses:—

Classification. Males. Females
1891. 1901. 1891. 1901.
Total. Unmarried. Married
Retired from Business (not Army, Navy, Church, Medicine) 192,941 262,175 68,496 81,635 33,532 48,103
Pensioners 20,988 25,567 2,799 1,142 311 831
Living on own Means 97,466 93,381 409,097 361,996 145,345 216,651
Others aged 10 years and upwards (including Students) 1,474,157 1,596,160 7,035,918 8,573,061 2,792,211 5,780,850
  Aged 10 to 15 1,191,562 1,305,765 1,350,259 1,469,443 1,469,443
  Aged 15 to 20 127,660 130,523 463,289 556,930 534,525 22,405
  Aged 20 and upwards 154,935 159,872 5,222,370 6,546,688 788,243 5,758,445

In the instructions on the Census Schedules, persons who had retired from their profession or occupation were directed to state the fact, and to specify their former calling; while persons "neither following nor having retired from a profession or occupation, but deriving their income from private sources" were directed to return themselves as "Living on own means." Of those who returned themselves as "Retired," a small proportion were stated to be "Pensioners," and these have been separately tabulated.

It is probable that some who had "Retired," being unwilling to name their former occupations, returned themselves as living on their own means, while others made no statement whatever as to occupation or means of living. The former class helped to swell the heading "Living on own means"; the latter, together with persons who made such vague statements that it was impossible to classify them, persons who on account of mental or physical incapacity had never followed any calling, women and girls entirely unemployed or engaged in domestic duties at home, students and scholars, are included under the heading "Others aged 10 years and upwards."

The number of each sex described as Retired (including Pensioners) bore a larger proportion to the total population in 1901 than in 1891; while the proportion described as "Living on own means" showed a distinct reduction at the later Census. Among males aged 20 years and upwards, those concerning whose occupation or former occupation no definite information was given fell from 21 per 1,000 of the population in 1891 to 18 per 1,000 in 1901. Among females there is an apparent increase of the proportion whose occupations or former occupations were not stated; but owing to the difference of method in classifying those engaged in domestic duties at home,5 no definite conclusion can be drawn from this increase.

In considering the proportions of the retired to those still engaged in occupations, it will be necessary to exclude from both sides of the account, Officers in the Army or Navy, Clergymen of the Established Church, and Members of the Medical Profession; since those who were described as having retired from these callings were, as in former Censuses, classed with those still occupied.

The 287,742 males who were classified as retired or pensioned were in the proportion of 2.85 per cent. to the total engaged in occupations other than those excluded as explained above. The 82,777 retired or pensioned females were in the proportion of 1.98 per cent. to the total engaged in occupations. As might be expected, the proportion in the case of each sex increases with age. The following Table shows this, and also the distribution of the Retired in Workhouses, in Lunatic Asylums and elsewhere:—

Age-group. To 100 occupied Males (excluding Officers
in the Army or Navy, Clergymen, and
Medical Men) at each Age-group, the
number classed as "Retired".
To 100 occupied Females at
each Age-group, the numbers classed
as "Retired".
Total. In Work-
houses and
Elsewhere. Total. In Work-
houses and
25-35* 0.39 0.01 0.29 0.09 0.65 0.02 0.52 0.11
35-45 0.79 0.01 0.45 0.33 1.36 0.04 0.96 0.36
45-55 2.01 0.03 0.58 1.40 2.68 0.06 1.34 1.28
55-65 8.24 1.67 0.69 5.88 8.40 2.37 1.65 4.38
65-75 31.41 8.37 0.92 22.12 28.14 11.70 2.11 14.33
75 and upwards 101.78 24.14 1.44 76.20 91.78 43.00 3.39 45.39
* All of the "Retired" at ages under 35 years are here assumed to have been between 25 and 35 years of age; the proportions at this age-group are therefore to some small extent over-stated.

It will be seen that at ages under 45 years the bulk of the "Retired" of both sexes were inmates of Asylums. Speaking very generally, about one-fourth of the retired males and about one-half of the retired females in the age-groups over 45 years were inmates either of Workhouses or of Asylums.

If the numbers classed as having retired from various occupations (Summary Volume, Table XXXVIII.) be considered in relation to the numbers classed as employed in those occupations, they will be found to bear widely differing proportions. For example, among males the proportions of retired Civil Servants, Policemen, Farmers, Innkeepers, and General Labourers are high, while those of Commercial Clerks, Railway Engine Drivers, Coal Miners, and men employed in Building and Works of Construction are low; and among females the proportions of retired Agriculturists. Innkeepers, Charwomen, and Costermongers are high, while those of Domestic Indoor Servants and females employed in Inn or Hotel Service, or in the Manufacture and Sale of Textile Fabrics are low.

The causes that govern these variations are many and complex; the following are some of them:—

  1. The statements in the Schedules as to the former callings of the "Retired" are generally less precise than are-those as to the callings of those still occupied.
  2. Persons who retire from an occupation may either retire altogether, or may engage in other occupations.
  3. The prevailing ages of retirement vary considerably in different occupations.
  4. The fact of the numbers engaged in any occupation being in 1901 greater or less than in former years would cause the retired from that occupation to bear a greater or less proportion to the occupied—in other words, as they are the remnant of a greater or a smaller number than are now engaged in the occupation.
  5. Many females who have been, employed in occupations while unmarried retire from those occupations when they marry. The fact of such persons having previously had occupations is not stated on the Census Schedules, and they are, therefore, not classed among the Retired.

The first and second of these causes are both illustrated by the figures relating to "Labourers."

Occupied. Retired. Retired—per
cent. of
Bricklayers', Builders', and Masons' Labourers 148,234 1,546 1.04
Railway Companies' and Railway Contractors' Labourers, Navvies 71,207 826 1.16
Labourers on Roads 50,370 589 1.17
Dock Labourers 88,631 1,838 2.07
Coalheavers; Coal-Porters, Labourers 26,123 331 1.27
Total of above defined groups of Labourers 384,565 5,130 1.33
  Factory Labourers (undefined) 23,663 978 4.13
  General or Undefined Labourers 409,773 21,986 5.37

It is probable, in the first place, that many of the Retired who should have been described as formerly Bricklayers' Labourers, Railway Labourers, &c., were indefinitely stated to have been "Labourers." Thus some of the 21,986 retired "Labourers," according to the Table, really belong to one or other of the definite groups. In the second place it is probable that Labourers in some of the definite groups, and also men from other occupations, who become unfit for their employment, drift into casual labour before they join the ranks of the "Unoccupied;" and such men would generally be described according to their final occupation.

In regard to the causes numbered (3), (4), and (5), it is obvious without concrete examples that the proportions of the retired must be affected both by variations in the age of retirement, and by growth or decline of the numbers employed in any occupation. It is also obvious that the diverse conditions of retirement for males and for females preclude any comparisons between the figures for the two sexes.

We have in a preceding paragraph noted the varying proportions of formerly occupied persons at different ages who were enumerated in Workhouses and Lunatic Asylums. The proportions in such Institutions also vary for different occupations. Among males these proportions are naturally the highest for some of the indefinite occupations which are grouped under Order XXII.; partly perhaps because those who become unfit for skilled work tend to drift into such indefinite occupations; but in great measure because the information as to occupations obtainable or at any rate furnished by these Institutions was less precise than might have been wished. The following Table shows the proportions of retired males classed in groups of occupations; those in Workhouses and Lunatic Asylums being separately distinguished:—

To 100 Occupied Males the proportions Retired.
Total. In
In Lunatic
All occupations* 2.85 0.57 0.32 1.96
Official and Defence of Country* 10.93 0.11 0.37 10.45
Professional* 3.39 0.18 0.33 2.88
Domestic Service 1.64 0.41 0.16 1.07
Commercial 2.03 0.16 0.30 1.57
Agricultural 3.51 0.84 0.31 2.36
Fishing 2.90 0.64 0.35 1.91
Labourers (aggregate from Table on page 128) 3.43 1.91 0.85 0.67
All other occupations (mainly Industrial, Mining, and Conveyance) 2.40 0.45 0.27 1.68
* Exclusive of Officers in the Army or Navy, Clergymen, and Medical Men (see page 129.

Among females the proportions of the Retired to the Occupied are naturally much greater for the married or widowed than for the unmarried; there are, however, a few exceptions to this rule, The chief of these will be seen in the following Table in which the statistics relating to several occupational groups are summarized. The Table shows the proportions retired severally for the unmarried, for the married or widowed, and for all females together; and also the proportions enumerated in Workhouses and in Lunatic Asylums:—

To 100 "Occupied" the proportion "Retired."
Married or
All Females.
Total. In Work-
In Lunatic
All Occupations 1.04 5.33 1.98 0.60 0.46 0.92
Sick Nurses, Invalid Attendants 2.40 7.06 4.39 0.81 0.39 3.19
Teaching 2.46 9.22 2.98 0.06 0.42 2.50
Domestic Indoor Service 1.08 8.37 1.60 0.53 0.65 0.42
Charwomen 6.11 6.09 6.09 4.20 1.33 0.56
Laundry and Washing Service 1.29 5.82 3.82 1.32 0.41 2.09
Farmers, Graziers 8.52 10.07 9.81 0.04 0.06 9.71
Workers and Dealers in Textile Fabrics 0.58 3.65 1.25 0.34 0.27 0.64
Workers and Dealers in Dress Fabrics 0.88 4.89 1.77 0.66 0.44 0.67
Workers and Dealers in Food, Drink, &c. 0.69 3.73 1.94 0.10 0.13 1.71
Costermongers, Hawkers, Street Sellers 5.66 8.38 7.72 5.33 2.04 0.35
All other Occupations 0.75 3.16 1.59 0.34 0.30 0.95

Throughout this section we have usually based our calculations on the actual occupational figures returned at the several Censuses, as a convenient plan for allowing of comparison in age groups, and according to local distribution of the industries, without complication. At the outset, however,6 we gave the rate of increase in population in order to afford a ready means of comparing therewith the increase or decrease in the several industries.

In concluding our remarks on the occupations of England and Wales, we desire to call special attention to Appendix Table 35, where the numbers in the principal occupations or groups of occupations are compared for the three Censuses, 1881, 1891, and 1901, in relation to population.

We must not, however, in comparing the number occupied with the population, omit reference to those other potent factors which cannot be safely left out of account, if accurate conclusions are to be drawn from such statistics. These factors are mainly to be found in (1) the enormous and ever increasing development of labour-saving machinery which, whilst it facilitates extended organization of labour, accounts, to a large extent, for the gradually decreasing number of hands employed in some of our principal industries; (2) the greatly reduced number of occupied children, aged 10 to 15, consequent on the protective measures which have been recently passed; and (3) the apparent decline in the employment of married women. We give the proportions for Domestic Indoor Servants separately, the figures not being comparable, and for Charwomen and Laundry and Washing Service, these headings being affected by the decreased employment of married women.

It may also be noted that, if all trades were to increase in proportion to the general population, no trade would show exceptional advance, nor relative or absolute decline, and no new trade would be established, whereas we conceive it to be in the natural order of process that, whilst some trades retain or improve upon the commercial position and prosperity they have attained to, others lose ground, making way for new ones that spring up.

Subject to these considerations, the following Table sets forth, on the one hand, the occupations, or groups of occupations, in England and Wales, in which the total persons employed increased relatively to the population aged 10 years and upwards during the past 20 years, and, on the other hand, those which declined:—

Occupations or
Groups of Occupations.
Proportion per
Million Persons.
Proportion per
Million Males.
Proportion per
Million Females.
1881. 1891. 1901. 1881. 1891. 1901. 1881. 1891. 1901.
SHOWING INCREASE AS BETWEEN 1881 AND 1901:—                  
General or Local Government of the Country 5,386 6,543 7,826 10,373 12,204 14,149 738 1,312 2,009
Defence of the Country 5,545 5,735 6,643 11,494 11,940 13,865
Professional Occupations and their Subordinate Services 21,674 23,029 23,940 24,781 25,035 25,681 18,778 21,175 22,339
Commercial Occupations—excluding Merchants, Salesmen, Buyers (commodity undefined) 15,638 18,277 23,022 31,666 36,190 43,154 699 1,725 4,502
Conveyance of Men, Goods, and Messages (excluding Platelayers, Gangers, Packers, and Railway Labourers) 41,088 45,428 50,022 83,985 93,209 102,844 1,105 1,272 1,427
Coal and Shale Mine Workers 19,774 23,448 25,418 40,657 48,513 52,824 310 286 203
Metals, Machines, Implements 35,190 35,367 39,051 69,043 69,659 77,003 3,639 3,677 4,136
Ships and Boats 2,801 3,162 3,421 5,794 6,568 7,131 11 15 9
Vehicles 3,280 3,694 4,679 6,750 7,577 9,484 44 105 257
Precious Metals, Jewels, Watches, Instruments, and Games (including Electricity Supply) 4,005 4,317 6,016 7,261 7,864 11,012 970 1,039 1,420
Building and Works of Construction—including Platelayers, Gangers, Packers, Railway Labourers; Lock, Key, and Gas Fittings Makers 39,620 36,279 44,570 81,925 75,307 92,811 189 213 188
Wood, Furniture, Fittings, and Decorations 9,326 9,152 10,172 17,368 17,089 19,202 1,829 1,818 1,865
Brick, Cement, Pottery, and Glass 6,638 6,309 6,931 11,154 10,391 11,732 2,429 2,536 2,513
Chemicals, Oil, Grease, Soap, Resin, &c. 3,629 4,139 5,080 6,696 7,268 8,401 770 1,248 2,024
Paper, Prints, Books, and Stationery 8,194 9,968 11,016 12,499 14,778 15,498 4,181 5,524 6,892
Drapers, Linen Drapers, Mercers 4,266 4,853 5,357 5,753 5,728 5,540 2,880 4,044 5,189
Food, Tobacco, Drink, and Lodging 36,849 41,609 42,403 59,088 62,178 63,810 16,121 22,601 22,709
Gas, Water and Sanitary Service (not including Electricity Supply) 1,310 1,858 2,705 2,696 3,853 5,637 18 14 9
Engine Drivers, Stokers, Firemen (not Railway, Marine, or Agricultural) 3,426 3,721 4,198 7,101 7,747 8,762
  267,639 286,888 322,470 496,084 523,098 588,540 54,711 68,604 77,691
SHOWING DECREASE AS BETWEEN 1881 AND 1901:—                  
Agriculture—On Farms, Woods and Gardens 70,058 58,273 47,304 138,327 116,513 95,510 6,426 4,453 2,956
Fishing 1,538 1,144 943 3,157 2,350 1,955 29 29 13
Skins, Leather, Hair, and Feathers 4,230 4,181 4,160 7,100 6,906 6,599 1,555 1,662 1,916
Workers and Dealers in Textile Fabrics (excluding Drapers) 52,433 48,587 40,268 46,009 43,273 35,021 58,420 53,498 45,095
Workers and Dealers in Dress 49,353 48,812 44,481 37,185 36,885 34,171 60,695 59,834 53,966
General Labourers 28,994 27,028 16,193 59,791 56,092 33,770 290 170 23
Domestic Indoor Service 66,646 65,508 55,084 6,042 5,525 5,287 123,134 120,938 100,897
Charwomen 4,790 4,752 4,416 9,254 9,144 8,479
Laundry and Washing Service 9,327 8,713 8,096 366 653 731 17,680 16,162 14,871
All other Occupations 23,134 24,335 22,405 39,006 40,129 35,466 8,342 9,741 10,384
  310,503 291,333 243,350 336,983 308,326 248,510 285,825 275,631 238,600
Total Occupied 578,142 578,221 565,820 833,067 831,424 837,050 340,536 344,235 316,291

1 A considerable proportion of the persons returned as Civil Servants are employed by the Post Office Authorities; the increase is largely due to the great expansion of that Department.

2 We have endeavoured, so far as the returns allow, to separate Domestic Servants properly so called from servants who are engaged in Hotels, Boarding Houses, Clubs, Colleges, Restaurants, Coffee and Eating Houses, &c. It must, however, be pointed out that in this attempt, we have been only partially successful, owing to the fact that many Boarding House-keepers omitted to return themselves as such, more especially in seaside and other holiday resorts.

3 See page 74.

4 Census Report 1891, Vol. IV., page 50.

5 See pages 76, 77.

6 See page 90.

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