Birthplaces of the Population

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1. The General Composition of the Population.

The following short summary shows the constituent parts of which the population of England and Wales, at the date of the Census, was made up; and also shows the proportions in which these several constituents contributed to the total.

BIRTHPLACE. Persons Enumerated
in England
and Wales.
Proportion to
100,000 Population.
England and Wales 24,855,822 95,694
Scotland 253,528 976
Ireland 562,374 2,165
Islands in British Seas 29,316 113
Colonies and Dependencies 94,399 363
Foreign parts:—    
  British Subjects 56,373 217
  Foreign Subjects 117,999 454
Ships At Sea 4,628 18
Total 25,974,439 100,000

2. Natives of England and Wales

Births in excess of deaths in all counties

It appears from the Reports of the Registrar-General that in every county of England and Wales, without exception, the births registered in the 10 years preceding the Census outnumbered the deaths; so that in every county, had there been no migration and no emigration, the population would have been greater in 1881 than at the previous enumeration. The rates of increase would, indeed, have been widely different. In those counties where the population contained a high proportion of married women of reproductive ages the increase would have been great; in such counties, for instance, as Staffordshire, Glamorganshire, and Durham, the growth due to this "natural increment" would have been over 20 per cent. Those counties, on the other hand, where the proportion of wives of reproductive ages was low would have shown but little increase; such, for instance, were Cornwall, Devonshire, and Herefordshire, among English counties, and Anglesey, Carnarvonshire, Pembrokeshire, and Cardiganshire, among Welsh counties, in none of which would the rate of growth have exceeded 11 per cent. Nevertheless, as before said, in every county without exception there would have been some, and a not inconsiderable, increase.

Counties that lose their natural increment

As a matter of fact, we know that this was not the case. There were no fewer than 13 counties in which the population was found, on enumeration, to have diminished. These counties had not only lost all their natural increment, but something over and above this. There were 26 other counties in which the population had, it is true, increased, but in a lower ratio than would have been the case had there been no migration and no emigration. The actual increment in each of these counties was smaller than the natural increment, These 39 counties, therefore, had produced more men and women than, they were able to retain, and had given off their surplus to other parts. Labour may be said to be one of their staple commodities, which they export to other counties or abroad.

Counties that absorb population from without

There remain 11 counties, or 12, if we call London, with the extra-metropolitan parts of Middlesex and Surrey, a county, in which the actual growth as shown on enumeration was in excess of the natural growth. These counties which absorbed population from without were London, Sussex, Essex, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Lancashire, Yorkshire, Durham, Glamorganshire, and Carnarvonshire.

A glance at the table in which the rates of increase, natural and actual, are given for each county, and a comparison with the columns in the same table that give the general character of the prevalent occupations, will show that, disregarding a few exceptions, the counties which export surplus population to other parts of the country are agricultural, while the counties that absorb population over and above their own native product are, as the list already given sufficiently indicates, mining, manufacturing, or commercial. The centres of industry, therefore, are fed with labour at the expense of the agricultural districts (see Appendix A., Table 32).

Amount of migration

Notwithstanding, however, the very great disturbance produced in the natural distribution of the population by this constant migration from agricultural to industrial districts, or, speaking generally, from country to town, the native population shows, after all, stationary habits of a very decided character. Of the natives of England and Wales who were in the country at the time of the Census, no less than 75.19 per cent. were enumerated in their native counties. In 1871 the proportion of stationary natives, as we may call them, was 74.04 per cent., or nearly the same; so that it appears that the increased facilities of locomotion, and the extended knowledge among the working classes as to the conditions of life in parts outside their immediate localities, have not had the result that might have been anticipated, of leading to greater migration. Comparing the two sexes in this respect, it appears that women are on the whole rather more migratory than men, probably in consequence of the demand in towns for domestic servants from the country. At any rate, the proportion of stationary males was 75.9, and that of stationary females 74.5 per cent. of the enumerated of the corresponding sex (see Appendix A., Table 30).

Differences between counties as to migration

There were, as might be supposed, very great differences between different counties, in regard to the retention of their natives within their borders (see Appendix A., Table 32). In Lancashire more than 90 per cent. of the enumerated natives of the county were enumerated within the county itself; and in Yorkshire, Glamorganshire, Durham, and Carnarvonshire, severally, as well as in London, this was the case with over 80 per cent. These, it will be remembered, are among the counties that absorbed population from without; so that it appears that those industrial counties which attract immigrants from other parts also retain, as might be anticipated, a large proportion of their own natives. The counties, on the other hand, that retain the smallest proportions of their natives are the agricultural, as is shown by the following list of the counties in which the stationary proportion of the enumerated natives was less than 65 per cent.

Rutlandshire 50.5 Berkshire 60.2
Radnorshire 53.4 Westmorland 60.6
Huntingdonshire 55.5 Hertfordshire 61.4
Brecknockshire 59.4 Shropshire 62.0
Buckinghamshire 59.6 Wiltshire 62.3
Oxfordshire 59.7 Cambridgeshire 63.3
Herefordshire 59.7 Dorsetshire 64.6

In what parts of the country did the natives of these counties, who migrated, and who formed from 35 to 50 per cent. of the whole, find a home?

It appears from the tables (Vol. III., Table 12 of each Divisional Part) which show the geographical distribution within the country of the enumerated natives of each county, that some 47 per cent., or nearly a half, of the migrants from these counties of greatest migration had gone but a very small distance from their birth-place, having simply moved into the adjoining county, into parishes therefore which were often as near to them as parishes in their own native county. Excluding these persons, who can scarcely be said to have left their native districts, there remain from 19 to 26 per cent. of the natives of these counties who had really left their place of birth, and had migrated into more distant parts. Of these the only general statement that can be made is that, as before stated, they had migrated into the industrial centres; the migration from one agricultural county into another of the same character, unless adjoining, being very limited in amount. Those, however, who are interested in the matter, and who wish to study the laws of migration in greater detail, will find materials for so doing in the tables already mentioned, which give the geographical distribution of the enumerated natives2 of each county in England and Wales.

Besides those tables, which have been now given for the first time, there are also others, as in previous Census Reports, which may be said to be the inverse of those already mentioned. Those gave the distribution of the natives of each county; these (Vol. III., Table 11 of each Divisional Part) give the birth-places of the inhabitants of each county. As those tables served to measure the migration out of any given county, so these serve to measure the migration into it from without.

The two sets of tables show a considerable amount of parallelism. Those counties which are shown by the one to retain a large proportion of their natives are shown by the other to attract a large number of strangers from without; and those counties which retain but a small proportion of their natives, are shown to receive but few immigrants from other parts; the same causes which drive out their own natives preventing strangers from coming in. As a general rule, it will be found that the counties with the highest native element in their population are the agricultural, and that those with the lowest are the industrial and the metropolitan.

3. Natives of Scotland and Ireland

The Scotch in England and Wales

The natives of Scotland who were enumerated in England and Wales numbered 253,528, being in the proportion of 9.8 to 1,000 of the entire population. The number of natives of Scotland enumerated in their own country was 3,397,759, so that there was one Scotchman or Scotchwoman in England or Wales to 13.4 in Scotland.

The number of Scotch natives in this country in 1841 was only 103,768, but it increased progressively at each succeeding Census up to 1881. The number, moreover, increased more rapidly than did the population of England and Wales; so that there was a progressive rise in the proportion which the Scotch element bore to the general population. In 1841 this proportion was 6.5 per 1,000, and rose till in 1881 it was 9.8 per 1,000 (see Appendix A., Tables 26 and 27). The counties in which the Scotch element was highest were Northumberland, where it constituted 54 per 1,000 of the population; Cumberland, where it was 49; Durham, where it was 28; Westmorland and Lancashire, in each of which it was 16; Middlesex, where it was 13; and Cheshire, where it was 12, per 1,000 of the population. In no other county was the proportion so high as 10 to 1,000 (see Appendix A., Table 29).

Of the great towns those in which the natives of Scotland were most fully represented were, as might be expected from their proximity, the industrial towns on the Tyne and Wear. Thus, in Newcastle-upon-Tyne over six per cent. of the population were Scotch, and in South Shields, Gateshead, and Sunderland, from four to five per cent.; whereas in Liverpool and Birkenhead, which came next in order, the proportion was barely four per cent. Then followed Manchester, Salford, West Ham, London, Kingston-upon-Hull, Portsmouth, Southampton, and St. Helens, these towns exhausting the list of those in which the Scotch formed as much as one per cent. of the inhabitants.

If we examine the distribution of the natives of Scotland in this country by another plan, namely, by the proportion which such natives enumerated in each county bore to the total number of Scotch natives in the whole country, we find that of 1,000 Scotch persons enumerated in England and Wales 243 were enumerated in London with the extra-metropolitan parts of Middlesex Surrey, and Kent, 220 in Lancashire, 97 in Durham, 92 in Northumberland, 76 in Yorkshire, 48 in Cumberland, 31 in Cheshire, and 23 in Hampshire, while in no other county was the proportion as high as 20. Passing to the great towns, of 1,000 natives of Scotland enumerated in England and Wales 204 were enumerated in London, or the closely adjoining town of West Ham, 94 in Liverpool or Birkenhead, 35 in Manchester or Salford, 46 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne or Gateshead, 19 in Sunderland, 12 in South Shields, and 10 in Leeds, while in no other of the great towns was the proportion as high as: 10 out of the 1,000.

The Irish in England and Wales

The natives of Ireland who were present in England and Wales at the date of the Census numbered 562,374, being in the proportion of 21.65 to 1,000 of the entire population. The natives of Ireland enumerated in their own country were, as shown in the Irish Census Report, 5,062,287; so that there were in England and Wales one ninth part as many Irishmen as in Ireland itself.

The number of Irish living in England and Wales in 1851 was 519,959, and in 1861 it had risen to 601,634; but at each Census since that date it was found to have fallen off. In 1871 it had fallen to 566,540, and in 1881, as already stated, to 562,374. It must be remembered, however, that the population of Ireland has itself declined very considerably. If this decline be taken into account it will be found that the Irish in England and Wales, when measured by their proportion to the Irish in their own country, have increased at each successive Census. In 1841 there were 36 Irish in this country to 1,000 in Ireland itself; in 1851 there were 80; in 1861 there were 105; in 1871 there were 107; and finally in 1881 the proportion had risen to 111 (see Appendix A., Tables 26 and 27).

The distribution of the Irish over the country was most unequal. In the purely agricultural counties their numbers were insignificant, while in the great manufacturing and mining counties they formed a not inconsiderable fraction of the population. Thus in Lancashire they formed 6.1 per cent., in Cumberland 5.6 per cent., in Durham 4.2 per cent., and in Cheshire 3.7 per cent. of the population; the proportion being also over 2 per cent. in Middlesex, Monmouthshire, Northumberland, and Glamorganshire. The proportion they bore to the population was lowest in the counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Norfolk, Huntingdon, Merioneth, Suffolk, Cambridge, Buckingham, Carmarthen, and Wilts; in no one of which was it as high as 0.3 per cent (see Appendix A., Table 29).

Passing from counties to towns, we find that in Liverpool the Irish formed 12.8, in Birkenhead 8.8, in St. Helens 8.5, in Manchester 7.5, and in Salford 7.4 per cent. of the population, these Lancashire and Cheshire towns being those in which the Irish element was strongest. Then followed in order Middlesbrough, Stockport, Cardiff, Gateshead, Preston, Bolton, Bradford, Bury, Blackburn, and Oldham, exhausting the list of great towns in which the Irish formed as much as 4 per cent. of the inhabitants. Of the aggregate inhabitants of London and of the 46 great towns each having a population exceeding 50,000 persons, 3.3 per cent. were natives of Ireland, while the proportion was only 1.5 per cent. in the rest of England and Wales.

Instead of considering, as we have hitherto done, the proportion borne by the natives of Ireland to the population of the several counties and towns, we may examine their local distribution in another way. Of each 1,000 natives of Ireland who were enumerated in this country, 378 were enumerated in Lancashire, 176 in London or the adjoining counties of Middlesex, Surrey, and Kent, 101 in Yorkshire, 65 in Durham, 42 in Cheshire, and over 20 in Cumberland, Staffordshire, Northumberland, Glamorganshire, and Hampshire respectively. With the exception of Hampshire, all these are mining or industrial counties, and the apparent exception presented by Hampshire is explicable by the comparatively large number of soldiers quartered in that county. Passing to the great towns, of 1,000 Irish enumerated in England and Wales 147 were enumerated in London or the adjoining town of West Ham, 139 in Liverpool or Birkenhead, 69 in Manchester or Salford, 17 in Leeds, 14 in Bradford, and 13 in Birmingham. In no other of the great towns was the proportion so high as 10 per 1,000.

Comparison of Scotch and Irish distribution in England and Wales

If we compare the distribution of the natives of Scotland in this country with that of the natives of Ireland, we find, in the first place, that in both cases there is a very strong tendency to congregate in the industrial rather than in the agricultural parts, but that this tendency is somewhat less in the case of the Scotch than in the case of the Irish. Of 1,000 immigrant Scotch and 1,000 immigrant Irish, there were more Scotch than Irish in every one of the mainly agricultural counties, with the exceptions of Devonshire, Anglesey, Pembrokeshire, and Gloucestershire; each of which is either on the western coast, or at any rate more accessible from Ireland than from Scotland, through the ports of Plymouth, Holyhead, Milford, and Bristol. Secondly, we find that the distribution is considerably affected by the relative proximity to Ireland and Scotland respectively of the industrial centres. The Irish preferentially select Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, and the adjoining counties. The Scotch select the northern counties. The two areas overlap each other, doubtlessly, very considerably. Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Durham are easily accessible from either Scotland or Ireland, Still of these counties Lancashire and Cheshire are relatively more accessible from Ireland; and Northumberland, Cumberland, and Durham more accessible from Scotland. In correspondence with this, of 1,000 immigrants from each country, there were more Irish than Scotch in Lancashire and in Cheshire, and more Scotch; than Irish in Northumberland, Cumberland, and Durham.

Of the other chief industrial counties, Glamorganshire, Monmouthshire, Staffordshire, and Warwickshire are proportionately more attractive to the Irish than to the Scotch; while, on the other hand, Middlesex, Surrey, Kent, and Essex, or in short London and its suburban environments, attract a larger proportion of the Scotch. Of 1,000 Scotchmen in this country, 261 were enumerated in these four counties, but only 18.5 out of 1,000 Irishmen.


Bedfordshire 16 9 11
Berkshire 41 26 34
Buckinghamshire 23 9 11
Cambridgeshire 16 9 15
Cheshire 310 420 152
Cornwall 25 30 108
Cumberland 481 251 15
Derbyshire 64 93 32
Devonshire 110 111 98
Dorsetshire 28 25 20
Durham 975 654 224
Essex 172 88 141
Gloucestershire 92 95 96
Hampshire 227 203 114
Herefordshire 16 10 9
Hertfordshire 37 14 23
Huntingdonshire 5 3 3
Kent 340 283 314
Lancashire 2,204 3,775 1,267
Leicestershire 41 33 29
Lincolnshire 47 34 124
Middlesex 1,548 1,090 4,555
Monmouthshire 27 93 59
Norfolk 41 18 27
Northamptonshire 28 19 19
Northumberland 923 222 199
Nottinghamshire 54 40 58
Oxfordshire 23 10 20
Rutlandshire 4 2 3
Shropshire 32 33 12
Somersetshire 50 40 56
Staffordshire 131 233 77
Suffolk 38 17 23
Surrey 547 386 710
Sussex 108 64 157
Warwickshire 115 171 140
Westmorland 41 7 4
Wiltshire 22 14 17
Worcestershire 46 40 31
Yorkshire 765 1,011 685
Anglesey 6 8 4
Brecknockshire 8 8 4
Cardiganshire 4 2 3
Carmarthenshire 9 6 7
Carnarvonshire 17 11 12
Denbighshire 22 17 6
Flintshire 16 25 16
Glamorganshire 80 213 231
Merionethshire 4 2 13
Montgomeryshire 7 4 2
Pembrokeshire 12 18 9
Radnorshire 2 1 1
Note.—This table may read as follows:— Of 10,000 natives of Scotland enumerated in England and Wales, 16 were enumerated in Bedfordshire, 41 in Berkshire, &c. Of 10,000 natives of Ireland enumerated in England and Wales, 9 were enumerated in Bedfordshire, &c. &c. And similarly with the Foreigners.

DISTRIBUTION of NATIVES of SCOTLAND and IRELAND and of FOREIGNERS in the GREAT TOWNS of ENGLAND and WALES per 10,000 enumerated in the whole Country.

London 1,954 1,435 5,104 Bury 13 39 12
Croydon 30 18 77 Salford 113 231 84
Brighton 32 20 104 Manchester 240 455 431
Portsmouth 58 54 66 Oldham 25 79 29
Southampton 27 14 43 Rochdale 17 45 18
Northampton 7 8 12 Burnley 14 38 8
West Ham 88 36 137 Blackburn 32 75 20
Ipswich 11 4 12 Preston 29 76 21
Norwich 13 6 17 Huddersfield 23 26 21
Plymouth 18 25 47 Halifax 18 46 17
Bath 12 12 32 Bradford 59 140 100
Bristol 45 57 98 Leeds 105 170 221
Wolverhampton 15 30 21 Sheffield 63 89 102
Walsall 10 22 10 Kingston upon Hull 72 44 241
West Bromwich 4 7 9 Middlesbrough 61 66 44
Birmingham 66 126 186 Sunderland 186 79 92
Aston Manor 8 7 15 South Shields 121 36 79
Leicester 21 17 31 Gateshead 118 56 20
Nottingham 32 27 110 Newcastle upon Tyne 344 98 129
Derby 20 23 21 Cardiff 31 76 175
Stockport 11 60 13 Ystradyfodwg 2 5 11
Birkenhead 131 132 83 Swansea 16 32 62
Liverpool 805 1,262 786        
St. Helens 25 87 8        
Bolton 35 82 23 TOTAL of 47 Towns 5,180 5,572 9,002
Note.—This table may read as follows:— Of 10,000 natives of Scotland enumerated in England and Wales, 5,180 were enumerated in the 47 great towns, viz., 1,954 in London, 30 in Croydon, and so on.

4. Natives of other parts of the British Empire.

Natives of Isle of Man and Channel Islands

The population of England and Wales included 29,316 persons who were born in the Islands in the British seas, that is to say, in the Isle of Man or in the Channel Islands. This group of immigrants was 14.3 per cent. in excess of the 25,655 natives of these Islands enumerated in England and Wales in 1871. This increase is the more noticeable, inasmuch as the aggregate population enumerated in the Islands themselves had declined in the course of the decade from 144,638 to 141,260, that is, by 2.3 per cent. In 1841 the numbers of natives of these Islands who were enumerated in England and Wales was only 11,705; but the number has risen at each successive Census since that date. In 1881 there was one native of these Islands in England and Wales to 3.8 such natives in the Islands themselves.

The county which had the largest share of these islanders was Lancashire, closely connected with the Isle of Man, where 9,082 were enumerated, an additional 1,232 being in Cheshire. In Hampshire there were 2,122, and in Devonshire 1,336. In London, which is not only a port, but the centre of attraction to all immigrants, there were 5,397.

Natives of Colonies and Dependencies

The natives of India and of other Dependencies and Colonies numbered 94,399. This element in our population has also increased with each successive Census, and Colonies and in part, doubtlessly, because the Colonies and Dependencies have themselves increased in population and in extent. The increase, however, has been greater than can thus be explained. In 1841 the number returned was 17,248; in 1851 it rose to 33.688; in 1861 to 51,572; in 1871 to 70,812; and, finally in 1881, as before stated, to 94,399; the increase in the final decade being 33.3 per cent.

Persons born at sea

To the foregoing may be added 4,628 persons born at sea, who were slightly more Persons born numerous than in 1871, when they numbered 4,395.

Casting up all the constituent parts of the population that have now been severally dealt with, we have a total of 25,800,0673 persons who were either born in the United Kingdom or in some part of the British Empire, and this total formed 99.329 per cent. of the entire population of England and Wales, so that the foreign element was numerically insignificant.

5. Natives Of Foreign States 4

Persons born abroad

The natives of Foreign States enumerated in England and Wales amounted altogether to 174,372, and constituted 0.671 per cent. of the aggregate population. This foreign element, as indeed each other constituent part of the population, with the single exception of the Irish, has increased uninterruptedly with each successive Census. The increase in the last intercensal period was 25 percent., or much higher than the increase of the whole population. The same was the case in each preceding intercensal period; from which it would appear that this country presents ever-increasing attractions to foreigners. In 1841 there was one foreign-born person to 403 population; in 1851 one to 291; in 1861 one to 197; in 1871 one to 163; and finally in 1881 one to 149.

Foreigners by nationality as well as birth

Of the 174,372 natives of Foreign States, 56,373 were British subjects, being either the children of British parents, born while their parents were sojourning abroad, or foreigners who had been naturalised. The remaining 117,999 were not only born abroad, but were Foreign subjects. This is the strictly foreign element in the population; and this element also, as the total of the foreign-born, has increased with each successive Census in somewhat higher proportion than the population itself. In 1851 there was one such foreign subject to 356 persons enumerated; in 1861 there was one to 239; in 1871 one to 226; and in 1881 one to 220; the increase in the last intercensal period having been 17.3 per cent.

Distribution of foreihn subjects

These foreign subjects, being mostly in this country for business purposes, were, as might be anticipated, almost exclusively enumerated in the towns. Fifty-one per cent. of the entire number, or more than a half, were enumerated in London, and 39 per cent. more in some or other of the 46 great provincial towns. The towns which, after London, contained the largest number of them were Liverpool, Manchester, Kingston-upon-Hull, Leeds, Birmingham, and Cardiff.

Natives of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America

Of the 117,999 persons who were foreigners by nationality as well as by birth, 98,617 were born in Europe, 484 in Asia, 258 in Africa, 18,496 in America, and 144 in unstated countries. In addition to these there were 32 foreign subjects who were born at sea. The number of natives of Europe had increased since 1871 by 9.8 per cent.; those of Asia by 34.4 per cent.; and those of America by 85.5 per cent.; while the natives of Africa had fallen from 385 to 258. Of the Americans, the great bulk, namely 17,767, were natives of the United States, showing a great increase since 1871, when only 8,270 were enumerated. This contingent, however, of 17,767 persons, borrowed from the United States, is of course as nothing compared with the contribution made by this country to the population of those States; for no fewer than 745,928 persons of English or Welsh birth were enumerated in the United States in 1880.

Natives of European States

The foreigners of European birth, enumerated in England and Wales, amounted in all to 98,617, the number in 1871 having been 89,829. This element in our population had, therefore, increased by nearly 10 per cent. A considerable proportion of these foreigners were sailors in our ports; and as the remainder consisted mainly not of permanent settlers but of persons sojourning temporarily with us for purposes of business, the proportion of males to females among them was naturally very great, there being 183 of the former to 100 of the latter.

The local distribution of these foreigners was governed by the same fact; for though there was no single county, either in England or in Wales, in which there were positively no European foreigners at all, yet the great bulk of them was found exclusively in the industrial centres. About 60 per cent. of the whole were enumerated in London and its immediate neighbourhood, 12 per cent. in Lancashire with the adjoining parts of Cheshire, nearly 7 per cent. in Yorkshire, and about 2 per cent. in Durham, Northumberland, and Glamorganshire, respectively. The details, however, of this distribution, both for all European foreigners collectively, and for the natives of each individual country, are given elsewhere. (Vol. III., Summary Table 11.)


Of all the foreign European States by far the most fully represented in England and Wales was the German Empire, which contributed 37,301 persons to our population against 32,823 enumerated in 1871, showing an increase of 13.6 per cent.

The chief occupations followed by these Germans were as follows:—

Teachers 2,048 Bakers 2,043
Musicians 880 Sugar Refiners 444
Servants 3,978 Tailors 1,719
Cooks (not domestic) 526 Milliners, Dressmakers, &c. 277
Merchants and Brokers 1,438 Shoemakers 603
Commercial Clerks and Travellers 2,091 Hairdressers 383
Seamen, &c. 1,860 Furriers 448
Watchmakers 886 Jewellers 261
Cabinet-makers 586 General Labourers 594
Butchers 743    


The French sojourners amongst us numbered 14,596 against 17,906 in 1871, when the number of French resident in England was temporarily increased in consequence of the German invasion, and had decreased by 18.5 per cent. They included the following:—

Teachers 1,647 Seamen 1,280
Roman Catholic Priests 119 Tailors 144
Sisters of Charity 269 Milliners, Dressmakers, &c. 648
Servants 1,592 Hairdressers, Wig Makers 126
Cooks (not domestic) 566 Jewellers 160
Merchants and Brokers 292
Commercial Clerks and Travellers 455    

Russians and Poles

The Russians and Russian Poles numbered 14,468, there being 3,789 of the former and 10,679 of the latter. The numbers in 1871 were 2,513 and 7,056 respectively, or in all 9,569. The increase, therefore, in the course of the decade was 51.2 per cent. Their main occupations were as follows:—

Teachers 144 Cabinet-makers 168
Servants 172 Tobacconists 125
Merchants and Brokers 105 Hatters 151
Commercial Clerks and Travellers 347 Tailors 3.264
Shoemakers 652
Seamen, &c. 529 Hairdressers, Wig Makers 103
Painters, Glaziers 449 Furriers 251


The enumerated natives of Italy amounted to 6,504 against 5,063 in 1871, having thus increased by 28.5 per cent. Amongst them were returned:—

Teachers 109 Carvers, Gilders 134
Musicians 1,240 Image Makers 245
Servants 510 Inn, Boarding, Lodging, Coffee-house Keepers 132
Cooks (not domestic) 130 Confectioners, Pastrycooks 198
Merchants and Brokers 109 Paviours, &c. 107
Commercial Clerks and Travellers 112 Street Sellers 356
Seamen, &c. 771 General Labourers 241
Cabinet-makers 78    


The natives of Holland numbered 5,357 against 6,258 in 1871, having decreased by 14.4 per cent. Among them were included:—

Teachers 91 Tobacconists 634
Musicians 52 Tailors 245
Servants 188 Milliners, Dressmakers, &c. 73
Merchants and Brokers 140 Shoemakers 85
Commercial Clerks and Travellers 215 Jewellers 98
General Shopkeepers 105
Seamen 405 Street Sellers 51


The natives of Switzerland numbered 4,089 against 3,226 in 1871, having therefore increased by 26.8 per cent. They included:—

Teachers 558 Watchmakers 61
Servants 1,329 Inn, Boarding, Lodging, Coffee-house Keepers 101
Cooks (not domestic ) 121 Confectioners, Pastrycooks 182
Merchants and Brokers 117    
Commercial Clerks and Travellers 243    


The enumerated natives of Scandinavia numbered in all 7,917, namely 1,748 Danes, 3,203 Norwegians, and 2,966 Swedes. In 1871 the number had been 7,573. The increase therefore in the decade was 4.5 per cent. Among the enumerated were:—

Servants 371 Seamen, &c. 4,248
Merchants and Brokers 214 Tailors 266
Commercial Clerks and Travellers 300 General Labourers 143


The enumerated Belgians were 2,462, showing a decrease of 2.9 per cent. from the 2,535 enumerated in 1871. Amongst the enumerated were:—

Roman Catholic Priests 67 Commercial Clerks and Travellers 96
Sisters of Charity 37 Seamen 159
Teachers 125 Cabinet-makers 61
Painters (Artists) 41 Tobacconists 84
Musicians 51 Tailors 45
Servants 212 Milliners, Dressmakers, &c. 58
Cooks (not domestic ) 39    
Merchants and Brokers 42    

Austrians and Hungarians

The enumerated Austrians, including 441 Hungarians, were 2,809, against 1,802 in 1871, showing an increase of 55.9 per cent. Amongst the enumerated were:—

Teachers 84 Cabinet-makers 46
Musicians 38 Tailors 161
Servants 221 Shoemakers 40
Merchants and Brokers 126 Furriers 78
Commercial Clerks and Travellers 163 Salt Makers 77
Seamen, &c. 369 Jewellers 71
    General Labourers 79


The Spaniards in the country numbered 1,433, against 1,484 in 1871; there was, therefore, a decrease of 3.4 per cent. in the decade. Of these 1,433 no fewer than 576 were Seamen, while of the remainder, 20 were Teachers, 54 Servants, 77 Merchants or Brokers, and 70 Commercial Clerks or Travellers.

Greeks, Turks, Portugese, Roumanians, Servians

The numbers of the natives of other European States were inconsiderable. There were 695 Greeks, including 255 Seamen and 112 Merchants and Brokers, with 45 Commercial Clerks and Travellers. There were 599 Turks, of whom 56 were Seamen and 158 Merchants or Brokers, with 37 Commercial Clerks and Travellers. There were 292 Portuguese, including 56 Seamen; and finally there were 91 Roumanians and 4 natives of Servia.

6. Population of London

The population of London is so gigantic, and forms by itself so large a part of the entire population of the whole country, that it may be well to give a separate account of it. The tables we have already referred to will allow any one to make a similar analysis of the population of each county, and of each urban sanitary district having a population of as much as 50,000; excepting that in the case of these districts he will not be able to separate the natives of the district itself from the natives of the county in which it is situated.


in London
the Num-
ber born
in each
County &c.
Of 1,000
Natives of
each County
&c., the
Resident in
in London
the Num-
ber born
in each
County &c.
Of 1,000
Natives of
each County
&c., the
Resident in
Total of inhabitants 1,000 147 Cheshire 1.59 10
London 629.36 804 Lancashire 7.35 10
Surrey (extra-metropolitan) 16.58 189 Yorkshire 8.44 12
Kent (extra-metropolitan) 25.02 136 Durham 2.11 12
Sessex 11.63 96 Northumberland 2.04 18
Hampshire 14.07 95 Cumberland 0.88 13
Berkshire 8.47 137 Westmorland 0.29 14
Middlesex (extra-metropolitan) 25.60 355 Monmouthshire 1.18 23
Hertfordshire 9.38 158 England (county not stated) 4.85 241
Buckinghamshire 7.15 124 Wales 6.17 17
Oxfordshire 5.86 100 Islands in the British Seas 1.41 184
Northamptonshire 4.60 59 Scotland 12.98 195
Huntingdonshire 1.94 93 Ireland 21.17 144
Bedfordshire 4.11 90 British Colonies or Dependencies 6.95 281
Cambridgeshire 6.57 109 British subjects born in Foreign Countries and at Sea 5.09 319
Essex 24.25 168 Foreigners:    
Norfolk 13.97 120   Europe:    
Suffolk 13.10 90     Russian Empire 2.29 602
Wiltshire 8.21 95     German Empire 5.76 589
Dorsetshire 4.78 78     Holland 1.10 783
Devonshire 15.45 86     France 2.16 565
Cornwall 4.33 43     Italy 0.92 539
Somersetshire 11.40 79     Other European States 2.21 417
Gloucestershire 8.94 56   Asia 0.06 502
Herefordshire 1.75 45   Africa 0.02 380
Shropshire 1.80 22   America 1.22 253
Staffordshire 3.35 13 Country not stated, and at Sea 0.02 494
Worcestershire 2.50 24      
Warwickshire 6.63 36      
Leicestershire 2.19 25      
Rutlandshire 0.40 53      
Lincolnshire 4.65 33      
Nottinghamshire 2.06 21      
Derbyshire 1.59 13      

The first column of figures gives the proportion of the population of London that was contributed by each county or other area. The second column of figures shows what proportion these several contributions bore to the total number of natives of such county or area enumerated in England and Wales. For instance, we learn that of the inhabitants of London 629 per 1,000 were London-born; and that of 1,000 London-born persons in the whole country 804 were living at the date of the Census in London itself. The English counties that contributed the largest proportion of immigrants to the population were, in the first place, the extra-metropolitan parts of Middlesex, Kent, and Surrey, which contributed between them 67 per 1,000; Essex, which gave 24; Devonshire, which gave 15; and Norfolk and Suffolk, which gave 14 and 13 per 1,000 respectively. The English counties that furnished the smallest contingents to the London population were Cumberland, Rutlandshire, and Westmorland.

The amounts of these contingents depended, of course, in great measure on the relative sizes of the counties. Cumberland, Rutlandshire, and Westmorland contributed few immigrants to London, partly because they were of small dimensions; and Devonshire contributed many, because of its own large size and population. But in the second column of figures the differences due to this cause are excluded, the figures indicating the proportion of the enumerated natives of each area that was resident in London. It becomes at once apparent that a most important factor in determining these proportions is proximity, and that the attraction of London is felt most strongly in the parts nearest to it. The counties that would head the list, were they arranged in the order of their pro rata contributions, would be Middlesex (extra-metropolitan), Surrey (extra-metropolitan), Essex, Hertfordshire, Berkshire, Kent (extra-metropolitan), and Buckinghamshire, being the counties closest at hand; while at the other end of the list would come, speaking generally, the counties that were farthest away. Doubtless there is also another factor, the effect of which is visible in the table, but is comparatively of little importance. The pro rata contributions of Cheshire and of Lancashire were only 10 per 1,000; of Yorkshire and of Durham only 12; of Derbyshire and of Staffordshire only 13. This was not merely because those counties were far off, for there were counties quite as far off that made larger, though still small, contributions. An additional cause was that the counties mentioned had attractions of their own; they were centres of industry, and retained a more than average proportion of their natives at home.

Neither Scotland nor Ireland contributed in any very material degree to the population of London; the natives of the former country constituting only 13 and of the latter country 21 per 1,000 of the inhabitants. These proportions were vastly exceeded in many of the great provincial towns. The subjects of Foreign States present in London were somewhat more numerous than the Scotch, but less numerous than the Irish, and formed about 16 per 1,000 of the entire population. Measured, however, by the proportions they bore to the total number of foreigners in the entire country, they were much more numerous than either the Scotch or the Irish; for, while of 1,000 Scotch and 1,000 Irish enumerated in England and Wales 195 and 144 respectively were enumerated in London, of 1,000 enumerated foreign subjects no less than 510 were found in the capital.

1 The tables relating to Birth-places are in Vol. III., which has an index at p. 526. Besides the tables relating to Foreigners (for which see foot-note to p. 56), the Summary Tables 7 and 8 give the country and county of birth of the population of England and Wales; while, in each Divisional Part, Table 11 gives the birth-places of the population of each county and large Urban Sanitary District, and Table 12 gives the distribution over the country of the natives of each county.

2 It must be carefully noted that the term in the text is "enumerated natives," that is to say, natives who were present in England and Wales at the time of the Census. Of the natives who had emigrated, in contradistinction to those who migrated within the country, we have no means of giving account.

3 Persons born at sea are here reckoned as of British birth; but, as a matter of fact, a small proportion of them were Foreign subjects.

4 The following are the chief tables relating to Foreigners: Vol. III., Summary Tables 9, 10, 11, as also Table 13 in each Divisional Part, relate to their numbers and distribution; Summary Table 12 relates to their ages; and Summary Table 13 to their occupations. (see Appendix A. to this Report, Tables 26, 27, 29, and 42.

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